• title-3733841

    TOPIC: Astrology

    A practitioner of astrology is called an astrologer, or, rarely, an astrologist. Numerous traditions and applications employing astrological concepts have arisen since its earliest recorded beginnings in the 3rd millennium BC.[1][2] It has played a role in the shaping of culture, early astronomy, and other disciplines throughout history.
    Astrology and astronomy were often indistinguishable before the modern era, with the desire for predictive and divinatory knowledge one of the primary motivating factors for astronomical observation. Astronomy began to diverge from astrology after a period of gradual separation from the Renaissance up until the 18th century. Eventually, astronomy distinguished itself as the scientific study of astronomical objects and phenomena without regard to the astrological speculation of these phenomena.
    Astrology is often defined as the study of the influences of the cosmos on life on earth.[3] Modern astrologers define astrology as a symbolic language [4][5][6], an art form[7], and a form of divination.[8][9] Despite differences of definitions, a common assumption of astrology is the use of celestial placements in order to explain past and present events and predict the future. The scientific community considers astrology a pseudoscience or superstition[10][11] as no scientific evidence has been found to support its claims. Belief in astrology remains widespread in the general public, with 31% of Americans believing in it and according to another study 39% considering it scientific.[12][13][14][15][16]

    History of astrology

    History of astronomy

    Astrology and astronomy

    Babylonian astrology

    Arab and Persian astrology

    Chinese astrology

    Hellenistic astrology

    Indian astrology

    Western astrology


    Branches of
    horoscopic astrology

    Natal astrology

    Electional astrology

    Horary astrology

    Mundane astrology



    Astrological texts

    Astrological writers

    Astrology Portal

    This box: view • talk • edit

    • 1 Core beliefs
    • 2 Traditions
    o 2.1 Current traditions
    o 2.2 Historical traditions
    o 2.3 Esoteric traditions
    • 3 The zodiac
    • 4 Horoscopic astrology
    o 4.1 The horoscope
    o 4.2 Branches of horoscopic astrology
    • 5 History of astrology
    o 5.1 Origins
    o 5.2 Before the scientific revolution
    • 6 Effects on world culture
    • 7 Astrology and science
    o 7.1 Claims about obstacles to research
    o 7.2 Mechanism
    o 7.3 Research
    • 8 See also
    • 9 References
    • 10 External links

    [edit] Core beliefs

    Astrological glyphs for some of the planets of astrology, including the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, and Pluto.
    The core beliefs of astrology were prevalent in most of the ancient world and are epitomized in the Hermetic maxim "as above, so below". Tycho Brahe used a similar phrase to summarize his studies in astrology: suspiciendo despicio, "by looking up I see downward".[17] Although the principle that events in the heavens are mirrored by those on Earth was once generally held in most traditions of astrology around the world, in the West there has historically been a debate among astrologers over the nature of the mechanism behind astrology. The debate also covers whether or not celestial bodies are only signs or portents of events, or if they are actual causes of events through some sort of force or mechanism.[citation needed]
    Although the connection between celestial mechanics and terrestrial dynamics was explored first by Isaac Newton with his development of a universal theory of gravitation, claims that the gravitational effects of the celestial bodies are what accounts for astrological generalizations are not substantiated by scientific research, nor are they advocated by most astrologers.[citation needed]
    Most astrological traditions are based on the relative positions and movements of various real or construed celestial bodies and on the construction of implied or calculated celestial patterns as seen at the time and place of the event being studied. These are chiefly the astrological planets, dwarf planets, the asteroids, the stars, the lunar nodes, Arabic parts and hypothetical planets. The frame of reference for such apparent positions is defined by the tropical or sidereal zodiac of twelve signs on one hand, and by the local horizon (ascendant-descendant axis) and midheaven-imum coeli axis on the other. This latter (local) frame is typically further divided into the twelve astrological houses. Furthermore, the astrological aspects are used to determine the geometric/angular relationship(s) between the various celestial bodies and angles in the horoscope.
    The claim of astrology to predict future trends and developments, or predictive astrology, is based on two main methods: astrological transits and astrological progressions. In astrological transits the ongoing movements of the planets are interpreted for their significance as they transit through space and the horoscope. In astrological progressions the horoscope is progressed forward in time according to set methods. Most modern astrologers no longer try to forecast actual events, but focus instead on general trends and developments. Skeptics respond that this allows astrologers to avoid making verifiable predictions, and gives them the ability to attach significance to arbitrary and unrelated events, in a way that suits their purpose. [18]
    In the past, astrologers often relied on close observation of celestial objects and the charting of their movements. Modern astrologers use data provided by astronomers which are transformed to a set of astrological tables called ephemerides, showing the changing zodiacal positions of the heavenly bodies through time.
    [edit] Traditions

    Zodiac signs, 16th century European woodcut
    There are many traditions of astrology, some of which share similar features due to the transmission of astrological doctrines between cultures. Other traditions developed in isolation and hold different doctrines, though they too share some features due to drawing on similar astronomical sources.
    [edit] Current traditions
    The main traditions used by modern astrologers are:
    • Vedic astrology
    • Western astrology
    • Chinese astrology
    Vedic and Western astrology share a common ancestry as horoscopic systems of astrology, in that both traditions focus on the casting of an astrological chart or horoscope, a representation of celestial entities, for an event based on the position of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the moment of the event. However, Vedic astrology uses the sidereal zodiac, linking the signs of the zodiac to their original constellations, while Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, over the centuries the twelve zodiacal signs in Western astrology no longer correspond to the same part of the sky as their original constellations. In effect, in Western astrology the link between sign and constellation has been broken, whereas in Vedic astrology it remains of paramount importance. Other differences between the two traditions include the use of 27 (or 28) nakshatras or lunar mansions, which have been used in India since Vedic times, and the system of planetary periods known as dashas.
    In Chinese astrology a quite different tradition has evolved. By contrast to Western and Indian astrology, the twelve signs of the zodiac do not divide the sky, but rather the celestial equator. The Chinese evolved a system where each sign corresponds to one of twelve 'double-hours' that govern the day, and to one of the twelve months. Each sign of the zodiac governs a different year, and combines with a system based on the five elements of Chinese cosmology to give a 60 (12 x 5) year cycle. The term Chinese astrology is used here for convenience, but it must be recognised that versions of the same tradition exist in Japan, Vietnam, Thailand and other Asian countries.
    In modern times, these traditions have come into greater contact with each other, notably with Indian and Chinese astrology having spread to the West, while awareness of Western astrology is still fairly limited in Asia. Astrology in the Western world has diversified greatly in modern times. New movements have appeared, which have jettisoned much of traditional astrology to concentrate on different approaches, such as a greater emphasis on midpoints, or a more psychological approach. Some recent Western developments include:
    • Modern tropical and sidereal horoscopic astrology
    • Cosmobiology
    • Psychological astrology
    • Sun sign astrology
    • Hamburg School of Astrology
    o Uranian astrology, subset of the Hamburg School
    [edit] Historical traditions
    Throughout its long history, astrology has come to prominence in many regions and undergone developments and change. There are many astrological traditions that are historically important, but which have largely fallen out of use today. Astrologers still retain an interest in them and regard them as an important resource. Historically significant traditions of astrology include:
    • Arab and Persian astrology (Medieval, near East)
    • Babylonian astrology (Ancient, near East)
    • Egyptian astrology
    • Hellenistic astrology (Classical antiquity)
    • Mayan astrology
    The history of Western, Chinese, and Indian astrology is discussed in the main article history of astrology.
    [edit] Esoteric traditions

    Extract and symbol key from 17th century alchemy text.
    Many mystic or esoteric traditions have links to astrology. In some cases, like Kabbalah, this involves participants incorporating elements of astrology into their own traditions. In other cases, like divinatory tarot, many astrologers themselves have incorporated the tradition into their own practice of astrology. Esoteric traditions include, but are not limited to:
    • Alchemy
    • Chiromancy
    • Kabbalistic astrology
    • Medical astrology
    • Numerology
    • Rosicrucian or "Rose Cross"
    • Tarot divination
    Historically, alchemy in the Western World was particularly allied and intertwined with traditional Babylonian-Greek style astrology; in numerous ways they were built to complement each other in the search for occult or hidden knowledge.[citation needed] Astrology has used the concept of the four classical elements of alchemy from antiquity up until the present day. Traditionally, each of the seven planets in the solar system known to the ancients was associated with, held dominion over, and "ruled" a certain metal.[citation needed]
    [edit] The zodiac

    Zodiac in a 6th century synagogue at Beit Alpha, Israel.
    Main article: Zodiac
    The zodiac is the belt or band of constellations through which the Sun, Moon, and planets transit across the sky. Astrologers noted these constellations and so attached a particular significance to them. Over time they developed the system of twelve signs of the zodiac, based on twelve of the constellations they considered to be particularly important. The Western and Vedic zodiac signs have a common origin in the tradition of horoscopic astrology, and so are very similar in meaning. In China on the other hand, the development of the zodiac was different. Although the Chinese too have a system of twelve signs (named after animals), the Chinese zodiac refers to a pure calendrical cycle, as there are no equivalent constellations linked to it like the Western or Indian zodiacs. The common choice of twelve zodiac signs is understandable considering the interaction of the Sun and Moon was central to all forms of astrology. Twelve cycles of the Moon — the months — roughly coincide with one solar year, making twelve a natural choice.
    The majority of Western astrologers base their work on the tropical zodiac which divides the sky into twelve equal segments of 30 degrees each, beginning with the first point of Aries, the point where the line of the earth's celestial equator and the ecliptic (the Sun's path through the sky) meet at the northern hemisphere spring equinox. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, the slow changing of the way Earth rotates in space, the zodiacal signs in this system bear no relation to the constellations of the same name but stay aligned to the months and seasons.
    Practitioners of the Vedic astrological tradition and a minority of Western astrologers use the sidereal zodiac. This zodiac uses the same evenly divided ecliptic but approximately stays aligned to the positions of the observable constellations with the same name as the zodiacal signs. The sidereal zodiac differs from the tropical zodiac by an offset called the ayanamsa, which steadily increases as the equinoxes drift further. Furthermore, some siderealists (i.e. astrologers employing sidereal techniques) use the actual, unequal constellations of the zodiac in their work.
    [edit] Horoscopic astrology

    18th century Icelandic manuscript showing astrological houses and glyphs for planets and signs.
    Horoscopic astrology is a system that was developed in the Mediterranean region and specifically Hellenistic Egypt around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE.[19] The tradition deals with two-dimensional diagrams of the heavens, or horoscopes, created for specific moments in time. The diagram is then used to interpret the inherent meaning underlying the alignment of celestial bodies at that moment based on a specific set of rules and guidelines. A horoscope was calculated normally for the moment of an individual's birth, or at the beginning of an enterprise or event, because the alignments of the heavens at that moment were thought to determine the nature of the subject in question. One of the defining characteristics of this form of astrology that makes it distinct from other traditions is the computation of the degree of the Eastern horizon rising against the backdrop of the ecliptic at the specific moment under examination, otherwise known as the ascendant. Horoscopic astrology has been the most influential and widespread form of astrology across the world, especially in Africa, India, Europe, and the Middle East, and there are several major traditions of horoscopic astrology whose origins are Hellenistic, including Indian, Medieval, and most other modern Western traditions of astrology.
    [edit] The horoscope

    A hand-drawn horoscope.
    Central to horoscopic astrology and its branches is the calculation of the horoscope or astrological chart. This two-dimensional diagrammatic representation shows the celestial bodies' apparent positions in the heavens from the vantage of a location on Earth at a given time and place. The horoscope is also divided into twelve different celestial houses which govern different areas of life. Calculations performed in casting a horoscope involve arithmetic and simple geometry which serve to locate the apparent position of heavenly bodies on desired dates and times based on astronomical tables. In ancient Hellenistic astrology the ascendant demarcated the first celestial house of a horoscope. The word for the ascendant in Greek was horoskopos from which horoscope derives. In modern times, the word has come to refer to the astrological chart as a whole.
    [edit] Branches of horoscopic astrology
    Traditions of horoscopic astrology can be divided into four branches which are directed towards specific subjects or purposes. Often these branches use a unique set of techniques or a different application of the core principles of the system to a different area. Many other subsets and applications of astrology are derived from these four fundamental branches.
    • Natal astrology, the study of a person's natal chart to gain information about the individual and his/her life experience.
    • Katarchic astrology, which includes both electional and event astrology. The former uses astrology to determine the most auspicious moment to begin an enterprise or undertaking, and the latter to understand everything about an event from the time at which it took place.
    • Horary astrology, used to answer a specific question by studying the chart of the moment the question is posed to an astrologer.
    • Mundane or world astrology, the application of astrology to world events, including weather, earthquakes, and the rise and fall of empires or religions.
    [edit] History of astrology
    Main article: History of astrology

    15th century image from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry showing believed relations between areas of the body and the zodiacal signs.
    [edit] Origins
    The origins of much of the astrological doctrine and method that would later develop in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East are found among the ancient Babylonians and their system of celestial omens that began to be compiled around the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE. This system of celestial omens later spread either directly or indirectly through the Babylonians and Assyrians to other areas such as India, China, and Greece where it merged with pre-existing indigenous forms of astrology.[citation needed]. This Babylonian astrology came to Greece initially as early as the middle of the 4th century BCE, and then around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE after the Alexandrian conquests, this Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of decanic astrology to create horoscopic astrology. This new form of astrology, which appears to have originated in Alexandrian Egypt, quickly spread across the ancient world into Europe, the Middle East and India.
    [edit] Before the scientific revolution
    From the classical period through the scientific revolution, astrological training played a critical role in advancing astronomical, mathematical, medical and psychological knowledge. Astrological influences included the observation and long-term tracking of celestial objects. It was astrologers who provided the first systematic documentation of the movements of the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and the stars. The differentiation between astronomy and astrology varied from place to place; they were indistinguishable in ancient Babylonia and for most of the Middle Ages, but separated to a greater degree in ancient Greece (see astrology and astronomy). Astrology was not always uncritically accepted before the modern era; it was often challenged by Hellenistic skeptics, church authorities, and medieval Muslim astronomers.[citation needed]
    The pattern of astronomical knowledge gained from astrological endeavours has been historically repeated across numerous cultures, from ancient India through the classical Maya civilization to medieval Europe. Given this historical contribution, astrology has been called a protoscience along with pseudosciences such as alchemy (see "Western astrology and alchemy" below).
    Many prominent thinkers, philosophers and scientists, such as Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Paracelsus, Girolamo Cardan, Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Carl Jung and others, practiced or significantly contributed to astrology.[20][2]
    [edit] Effects on world culture
    Main article: Cultural influence of astrology
    Astrology has had a profound influence over the past few thousand years on Western and Eastern cultures. In the Middle Ages, when the educated of the time believed in astrology, the system of heavenly spheres and bodies was believed to reflect on the system of knowledge and the world itself below.
    Astrology has had an influence on both language and literature. For example, influenza, from medieval Latin influentia meaning influence, was so named because doctors once believed epidemics to be caused by unfavorable planetary and stellar influences. The word "disaster" comes from the Latin dis-aster meaning "bad star". Adjectives "lunatic" (Luna/Moon), "mercurial" (Mercury), "venereal" (Venus), "martial" (Mars), "jovial" (Jupiter/Jove), and "saturnine" (Saturn) are all old words used to describe personal qualities said to resemble or be highly influenced by the astrological characteristics of the planet, some of which are derived from the attributes of the ancient Roman gods they are named after. In literature, many writers, notably Geoffrey Chaucer[21][22][23] and William Shakespeare,[24][25] used astrological symbolism to add subtlety and nuance to the description of their characters' motivation(s). Often, an understanding of astrological symbolism is needed to fully appreciate such literature.
    Some modern thinkers, notably Carl Jung,[26] believe in astrology's descriptive powers regarding the mind without necessarily subscribing to its predictive claims. In education astrology is reflected in the university education of medieval Europe, which was divided into seven distinct areas, each represented by a particular planet and known as the seven liberal arts. Dante Alighieri speculated that these arts, which grew into the sciences we know today, fitted the same structure as the planets. In music the best known example of astrology's influence is in the orchestral suite called "The Planets" by the British composer Gustav Holst, the framework of which is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets.
    [edit] Astrology and science
    ‹The template Infobox Pseudoscience is being considered for deletion.›

    Disciplines: Astronomy, Psychology

    Core tenets:
    Position of the planets determines personality and human events.
    Year proposed: antiquity
    Original proponents: ancient priests and astrologers
    Current proponents: Philip Berg, Rob Brezsny, Michel Gauquelin, Linda Goodman, Sydney Omarr, Joan Quigley, Jackie Stallone, Athena Starwoman, Shelley von Strunckel, Richard Tarnas

    The Ptolemaic system depicted by Andreas Cellarius, 1660/61
    By the time of Francis Bacon and the scientific revolution, newly emerging scientific disciplines acquired a method of systematic empirical induction validated by experimental observations, which led to the scientific revolution.[27] At this point, astrology and astronomy began to diverge; astronomy became one of the central sciences while astrology was increasingly viewed as an occult science or superstition by natural scientists. This separation accelerated through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[28]
    Astrology is now regarded as unscientific both by scientific bodies and by individual scientists[29][30] and has been labeled as a pseudoscience.[31] In 1975, the American Humanist Association published one of the most widely known modern criticisms of astrology, characterizing those who continue to have faith in the subject as doing so "in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs, and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary".[12] Astronomer Carl Sagan found himself unable to sign the statement, not because he felt astrology had any validity at all, but because he found the statement's tone authoritarian.[32][33] Sagan stated that he would instead have been willing to sign a statement describing and refuting the principal tenets of astrological belief, which he believed would have been far more persuasive and would have produced much less controversy than the circulated statement.[34]
    Although astrology has had no scientific standing for some time, it has been the subject of much research among astrologers since the beginning of the twentieth century. In their landmark study of twentieth-century research into natal astrology, astrology critics Geoffrey Dean and coauthors documented this burgeoning research activity, primarily within the astrological community.[35]
    [edit] Claims about obstacles to research
    Astrologers have argued that there are significant obstacles in carrying out scientific research into astrology today, including lack of funding,[36][37] lack of background in science and statistics by astrologers,[38] and insufficient expertise in astrology by research scientists and skeptics.[39][36][37] There are only a handful of journals dealing with scientific research into astrology (i.e. astrological journals directed towards scientific research or scientific journals publishing astrological research). Some astrologers have argued that few practitioners today pursue scientific testing of astrology because they feel that working with clients on a daily basis provides a personal validation for them.[37][40]
    Another argument made by astrologers is that most studies of astrology do not reflect the nature of astrological practice and that the scientific method does not apply to astrology.[41][42] Some astrology proponents claim that the prevailing attitudes and motives of many opponents of astrology introduce conscious or unconscious bias in the formulation of hypotheses to be tested, the conduct of the tests, and the reporting of results.[39][11][12][43][2]

    Early science, particularly geometry and astronomy/astrology, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of Creation, as many believed that there was something intrinsically divine or perfect that could be found in circles.


    As astrologers have been consistently unable to present physical mechanisms for astrology,[44][45] few modern astrologers believe in a direct causal relationship between heavenly bodies and earthly events.[37] An editorial published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific reports that they can find no evidence for a scientifically defined mechanism by which celestial objects can supposedly influence terrestrial affairs.[11] Some researchers have posited acausal, purely correlative, relationships between astrological observations and events, such as the theory of synchronicity proposed by Carl Jung.[46] Others have posited a basis in divination.[47] Still others have argued that empirical correlations can stand on their own epistemologically, and do not need the support of any theory or mechanism.[39] To some observers, these non-mechanistic concepts raise serious questions about the feasibility of validating astrology through scientific testing, and some have gone so far as to reject the applicability of the scientific method to astrology almost entirely.[39] Some astrologers, on the other hand, believe that astrology is amenable to the scientific method, given sufficiently sophisticated analytical methods, and they cite pilot studies they claim support this view.[48] Consequently, several astrologers have called for or advocated continuing studies of astrology based on statistical validation.[49]


    The Mars effect: relative frequency of the diurnal position of Mars in the birth chart of eminent athletes.
    French psychologist and statistician Michel Gauquelin claimed to have found correlations between some planetary positions and certain human traits such as vocations.[50] Gauquelin's most widely known claim is known as the Mars effect, which is said to demonstrate a correlation between the planet Mars occupying certain positions in the sky more often at the birth of eminent sports champions than at the birth of ordinary people. A similar claim is made by Richard Tarnas in his work Cosmos and Psyche, in which he explores correspondences between planetary alignments and historically significant events and individuals.
    Since its original publication in 1955, the Mars effect has been the subject of critical studies and skeptical publications which refute it,[51][52][53] and studies in fringe journals claiming to support or expand the original claims.[54][55] Gauquelin's research has not received mainstream scientific notice.

    The scientific community says that astrology has repeatedly failed to demonstrate its effectiveness in numerous controlled studies.[10][11] Effect size studies in astrology conclude that the mean accuracy of astrological predictions is no greater than what is expected by chance, and astrology's perceived performance has disappeared on critical inspection.[56] When testing for cognitive, behavioral, physical and other variables, one study of astrological "time twins" showed that human characteristics are not molded by the influence of the Sun, Moon and planets at the time of birth.[56][57] Skeptics of astrology also suggest that the perceived accuracy of astrological interpretations and descriptions of one's personality can be accounted for by the fact that people tend to exaggerate positive 'hits' and overlook whatever does not fit, especially when vague language is used.[56] They also argue that statistical research is often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology due to uncontrolled artifacts.[58] A large-scale study, with a sample size of about 15,000 "astro-twins", was published in 2006. It examined the relationship between date of birth and individual differences in personality and general intelligence, and found no evidence that a connection existed.[59] It also found no relationship between the zodiacal signs and participants' personal traits.[59]

    Astrology Portal

    • Astrologers (list of)
    • List of astrological traditions
    • List of astrological applications
    • Astrology and astronomy
    • Astrology and computers
    • Astrological aspects
    • Astrological houses
    • Astrological sign
    o Zodiac
    • Astrological symbols

    1. ^ Robert Hand. The History of Astrology — Another View. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
    2. ^ a b c Eysenck, H.J., Nias, D.K.B., Astrology: Science or Superstition? (Penhuin Books, 1982)
    3. ^ David Pingree. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Astrology. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
    4. ^ Reinhold Ebertin. Combination of Stellar Influences. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
    5. ^ Michael Star. Astrology FAQ, Basics for Beginners and Students of Astrology. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
    6. ^ Alan Oken. Alan Oken’s As Above So Below. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
    7. ^ Nick Campion. Nick Campion's Online Astrology Resource: Science & Astrology. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
    8. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Meriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
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    10. ^ a b WordNet 2.1. Princeton. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
    11. ^ a b c d Activities With Astrology. Astronomical society of the Pacific.
    12. ^ a b c Objections to Astrology: A Statement by 186 Leading Scientists. The Humanist, September/October 1975.
    13. ^ Humphrey Taylor. The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
    14. ^ Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding. National Science Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
    15. ^ "Astrology". Encarta. (2008). Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. “Scientists have long rejected the principles of astrology, but millions of people continue to believe in or practice it.”
    16. ^ Astrology: Fraud or Superstition? by Chaz Bufe {{cite web | title= Astrology Fraud or Superstition | url= | publisher= See Sharp Press
    17. ^ Adam Mosley. Tycho Brahe and Astrology. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
    18. ^ Is Astrology a Pseudoscience? Examining the Basis and Nature of Astrology
    19. ^ David Pingree - From Astral Omens to Astrology from Babylon to Bikaner, Roma: Istituto Italiano per L'Africa e L'Oriente, 1997. Pg. 26.
    20. ^ Bruce Scofield. Were They Astrologers? — Big League Scientists and Astrology. The Mountain Astrologer magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
    21. ^ A. Kitson. Astrology and English literature. Contemporary Review, Oct 1996. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
    22. ^ M. Allen, J.H. Fisher. Essential Chaucer: Science, including astrology. University of Texas, San Antonio. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
    23. ^ A.B.P. Mattar et al. Astronomy and Astrology in the Works of Chaucer. University of Singapore. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
    24. ^ P. Brown. Shakespeare, Astrology, and Alchemy: A Critical and Historical Perspective. The Mountain Astrologer, Feb/Mar 2004.
    25. ^ F. Piechoski. Shakespeare's Astrology.
    26. ^ Carl G. Jung, "Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious," excerpted in The Basic Writings of C.G. Jung (Modern Library, repr. 1993), 362-363.
    27. ^ Hooker, Richard. The scientific revolution.
    28. ^ Jim Tester, A History of Western Astrology (Ballantine Books, 1989), 240ff.
    29. ^ Richard Dawkins. The Real Romance in the Stars. The Independent, December 1995.
    30. ^ British Physicist Debunks Astrology in Indian Lecture. Associated Press.
    31. ^ Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List. Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
    32. ^ Sagan, Carl. "Letter." The Humanist 36 (1976): 2
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    34. ^ Sagan, Carl. The Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1996), 303.
    35. ^ G. Dean et al, Recent Advances in Natal Astrology: A Critical Review 1900-1976. The Astrological Association (England 1977)
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    37. ^ a b c d G. Phillipson, Astrology in the Year Zero. Flare Publications (London, 2000) ISBN 0-9530261-9-1
    38. ^ School History. The Avalon School of Astrology.
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    40. ^ K. Irving. Science, Astrology and the Gauquelin Planetary Effects.
    41. ^ M. Urban-Lurain, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis, Astrological Research Methods, Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995) ISBN 0-9646366-0-3
    42. ^ G. Perry, How do we Know What we Think we Know? From Paradigm to Method in Astrological Research, Astrological Research Methods, Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995) ISBN 0-9646366-0-3
    43. ^ Bob Marks. Astrology for Skeptics.
    44. ^ Dr. P. Seymour, Astrology: The evidence of Science. Penguin Group (London, 1988) ISBN 0-14-019226-3
    45. ^ Frank McGillion. The Pineal Gland and the Ancient Art of Iatromathematica.
    46. ^ Maggie Hyde, Jung and Astrology. The Aquarian Press (London, 1992) p. 24-26.
    47. ^ Geoffrey Cornelius, The Moment of Astrology. Utsav Arora, another meditation research specialist and astrologer, argues, "if 100% accuracy were to be the benchmark, we should be closing down and shutting all hospitals, medical labs. Scientific medical equipment and drugs have a long history of errors and miscalculations. Same is the case with computers and electronic. We don't refute electronic gadgets and equipment just because it fails but we work towards finding cures for the errors." The Wessex Astrologer (Bournemouth, 2003.)
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    49. ^ M. Pottenger (ed), Astrological Research Methods, Volume 1: An ISAR Anthology. International Society for Astrological Research (Los Angeles 1995) ISBN 0-9646366-0-3
    50. ^ Gauquelin M., Cosmic Influences on Human Behavior, Aurora Press, Santa Fe NM (1994)
    51. ^ Benski, C. et al. 1996. The "Mars Effect": A French Test of Over 1000 Sports Champions.
    52. ^ Zelen, M., P. Kurtz, and G. Abell. 1977. Is there a Mars effect? The Humanist 37 (6): 36-39.
    53. ^ Herbert Neisler in Skeptical — a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, ed Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0731657942, p3
    54. ^ Suitbert Ertel. Raising the Hurdle for the Athletes' Mars Effect: Association Co-Varies With Eminence. Journal of Scientific Exploration.
    55. ^ Ken Irving. Discussion of Mars eminence effect. Planetos.
    56. ^ a b c Dean and Kelly. Is Astrology Relevant to Consciousness and Psi?.
    57. ^ Robert Matthews. "Comprehensive study of 'time twins' debunks astrology", London Daily Telegraph, 2003-08-17. Archived from the original on 2007-05-22.
    58. ^ Dean, Geoffery. Artifacts in data often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology.
    59. ^ a b Peter, Hartmann; Reuter, Martin; Nyborg, Helmut (2006). "The relationship between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence: A large-scale study". Personality and Individual Differences 40: 1349–1362. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.017. ISSN 0191-8869. Lay summary – Discovery News (2006-04-25).
    [edit] External links


    • Astrology at the Open Directory Project
    Astrology and science
    • Astrology and Science, a critical look at astrology and science.
    • The Astrotest, an account of a test of the predictive power of astrology, with references to other experiments.
    • The Real Romance in the Stars, a critical view of astrology by Richard Dawkins.
    • Astrofaces, a research project seeking to provide statistical correlations of astrology for modern science with photographs grouped by the sun, moon and ascendant signs of the subjects.
    Astrology and religion
    • Astrology in Islam
    • Astrology Haram in Islam
    • Astrology in the Old and New Testament, by Joseph John Dewey.
    • Astrology: Between Religion and the Empirical, a treatise on astrology by Dr. Gustav-Adolf Schoener, translated by Shane Denson.
    • Medieval Astrology, a learning resource from the British Library.
    • Astrology in Judaism
    • Astrology Research Center Belgrade, by prof. Joanna Lucic Gajic

  • title-3733685

    About the Capital of India -Delhi

    • India

    Bahá'í Lotus Temple in South Delhi


    Coordinates: 28°37′N 77°14′E28.61, 77.23

    Time zone
    IST (UTC+5:30)

    • Elevation
    1,483 km² (573 sq mi)
    • 239 m (784 ft)[1]

    Districts of Delhi

    • Density
    • Metro
    11,505,196[2] (2nd) (2007)
    • 7,758/km² (20,093/sq mi)
    • 21.5 million[3] (2007)

    Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu

    Chief Minister
    Sheila Dikshit

    Lt. Governor
    Tejendra Khanna

    Aarti Mehra

    Established 1 November 1958

    Legislature (seats) Unicameral (70)

    • Pincode
    • Telephone
    • Vehicle

    • 110 xxx
    • +9111
    • INDEL
    • DL-xx

    Coordinates: 28°37′N 77°14′E28.61, 77.23
    For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation).
    Delhi (Hindi: दिल्ली, Punjabi: ਦਿੱਲੀ, Urdu: دلی, IPA: [d̪ɪlːiː]) sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India, after Mumbai, with a population of 11.5 million, and with an extended metropolitan population of almost 22 million.[4][5] Located in northern India on the banks of the River Yamuna, Delhi has the political status of a federally-administered union territory known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), which in itself is part of National Capital Region. A constitutional amendment in 1991 gave Delhi a special status among the Union Territories; Delhi has its own legislative assembly with limited powers. The National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, three statutory towns viz. Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB), 59 census towns and 165 villages.[6]
    Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. Having been the capital of several empires in ancient India, Delhi was a major city in the old trade routes from northwest India to the Gangetic Plains. Many ancient monuments, archaeological sites and remains of national importance have been erected in its history.[7] The Mughals built a section of the city (now known as Old City or Old Delhi) that served as the capital of Mughal Empire for a long period. During the British Raj, New Delhi was built as an administrative quarter of the city. New Delhi was declared the capital of India after India gained independence from British rule in 1947. As the seat of the Government of India, New Delhi houses important offices of the federal government, including the Parliament of India, making Delhi a powerhouse of Indian politics.
    Delhi has grown up to be a cosmopolitan city owing to the immigration of people from across the country. Like many other large cities of the world, Delhi suffers from urbanisation problems such as pollution, traffic congestion, and scarcity of resources[8]. The rapid development and urbanisation of Delhi and surrounding areas coupled with the high average income of the populace has largely eclipsed socio-cultural traits that used to represent Delhi until a few years after independence.[9][10][11] Today, Delhi is a major cultural, political, and commercial center of India.
    1 Etymology
    2 History
    3 Geography and Climate
    4 Civic administration
    5 Government and politics
    6 Utility services
    7 Economy
    8 Transport
    9 Demographics
    10 Culture
    11 Education
    12 Media
    13 Sports
    14 References
    15 Further reading
    16 See also
    17 External links

    [edit] Etymology
    The etymology of "Delhi" is uncertain. The most common view is that it is an eponym of Dhillu, a king who ruled the area in ancient times.[12] Some historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of dehleez or dehali—Hindustani for 'threshold'—and symbolic of city as a gateway to the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[13] Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.[14] The Hindi/Prakrit word dhili ("loose") was also used for the area, and gradually transformed into the local name "Dilli". The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomara Rajputs were called dehliwal [15]
    [edit] History

    At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret.[16]

    Built in 1560, the Humayun's Tomb is a prime example of Mughal Architecture.

    The India Gate commemorates Indian soldiers who died in World War I
    Main article: History of Delhi
    Human habitation was probably present in and around Delhi during the second millennium BC and before, as evidenced by archeological relics.[17] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[12] Settlements grew from the time of the Mauryan Empire (c. 300 BC).[17] Remains of seven major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 AD. The Chauhan Rajputs of Ajmer conquered Lal Kot in 1180 AD and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. The Chauhan king Prithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by the Afghan Muhammad Ghori.[12] In 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty established the Delhi Sultanate. Qutb-ud-din started the construction the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam), the earliest extant mosque in India.[12][18] After the fall of the Slave dynasty, a succession of Turkic and Central Asian dynasties, the Khilji dynasty, the Tughluq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodhi dynasty held power in the late medieval period, and built a sequence of forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[19] In 1398, Timur Lenk invaded India on the pretext that the Muslim sultans of Delhi were too much tolerant to their Hindu subjects. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins.[20] Delhi was a major center of sufism (a mystic tradition of Islam) during the Sultanate period.[21] In 1526, Zahiruddin Babur defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi, Agra and Lahore.[12]
    The Mughal Empire ruled northern India for more than three centuries, with a five-year hiatus during Sher Shah Suri's reign in the mid-16th century.[22] In 1556 C.E., a Hindu general named Hemu took control of Agra and Delhi from the Mughals, thus re-establishing Hindu Vikramaditya Dynasty.[citation needed] Mughal emperor Akbar shifted the capital from Agra to Delhi. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name (Shahjahanabad), and is more commonly known as the Old City or Old Delhi. The old city served as the capital of the Mughal Empire since 1638. Nader Shah defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal in February, 1739. After this victory, Nader captured and sacked Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[23] In 1761, Delhi was raided by Ahmed Shah Abdali after the Third battle of Panipat. At the Battle of Delhi on 11 September 1803, General Lake's British forces defeated the Marathas.
    Delhi came under direct British control after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[12] Shortly after the Rebellion, Calcutta was declared the capital of British India and Delhi was made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, Delhi was again declared as the capital of British India. Parts of the old city were pulled down to create New Delhi; a monumental new quarter of the city designed by the British architect Edwin Lutyens to house the government buildings. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi, was officially declared as the seat of the Government of India and the capital of the republic after independence on 15 August 1947. During the partition of India thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees from West Punjab and Sindh migrated to Delhi. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues, contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[24]
    In 1984, the assassination of Indira Gandhi (Prime Minister of India) led to violent backlash against the Sikh community, resulting in over two thousand seven hundred deaths.[25] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi.[26] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly, though with limited powers.[26]
    [edit] Geography and Climate
    See also: Climate of Delhi
    The National Capital Territory of Delhi is spread over an area of 1,483 km² (573 sq mi), of which 783 km² (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km² (270 sq mi) urban. Delhi has a maximum length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and the maximum width of 48.48 km (30 mi). There are three local bodies (statutory towns) namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (area is 1,397.3 km² (540 sq mi)), New Delhi Municipal Committee (42.7 km² (16 sq mi)) and Delhi Cantonment Board (43 km² (17 sq mi)).[27]

    The Great Gangetic Plains cover most of Delhi, as can be seen in this NASA image.
    Delhi is located at 28°61′N, 77°23′E, and lies in northern India. It borders the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh on East and Haryana on West, North and South. Delhi lies almost entirely in the Gangetic plains. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plain and the Delhi ridge. The low-lying Yamuna flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture. However, these plains are prone to recurrent floods. Reaching up to a height of 318 m (1043 ft),[28] the ridge forms the most dominating feature in this region. It originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, northeast and northwest parts of the city. Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. Most of the city, including New Delhi, lies west of the river. East of the river is the urban area of Shahdara. Delhi falls under seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to major earthquakes. [29]
    Delhi has a semi-arid climate with high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in between. During the summer season, the city faces extreme power and water shortages.[30] The summer heat waves kill dozens each year.[30] Winter starts in November and peaks in January and is notorious for its heavy fog, which often disrupts road, air and rail traffic.[31] Extreme temperatures range from −0.6 °C (30.9 °F) to 47 °C (117 °F).[32] The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 14 °C to 33 °C (58 °F to 92 °F).[33] The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.[12] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.[34]
    [edit] Civic administration
    See also: Divisions of Delhi, Districts of Delhi, and List of towns in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    Map showing the nine districts of Delhi
    The Delhi metropolitan area lies within the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT). The NCT has three local municipal corporations: Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board. MCD is one of the largest municipal corporations in the world providing civic amenities to an estimated 13.78 million people.[35] The capital of India, New Delhi, falls under the administration of NDMC. The chairperson of the NDMC is appointed by the Government of India in consultation with the Chief Minister of Delhi.
    Delhi has four major satellite cities which lie outside the National Capital Territory of Delhi. These are Gurgaon and Faridabad (in Haryana), and NOIDA and Ghaziabad (in Uttar Pradesh). Delhi is divided into nine districts. Each district (division) is headed by a Deputy Commissioner and has three subdivisions. A Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the Divisional Commissioner. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcing department for all kinds of State and Central Government policies and exercises supervisory powers over numerous other functionaries of the Government.
    The Delhi High Court has jurisdiction over Delhi. Delhi also has lower courts; the Small Causes Court for civil cases, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The Delhi Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, is one of the largest metropolitan police forces in the world.[36] Delhi is administratively divided into nine police-zones, which are further subdivided into 95 local police stations.[37]
    [edit] Government and politics

    The North Block, in New Delhi, houses key government offices
    As a special Union Territory, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister. The legislative assembly seats are filled by direct election from territorial constituencies in the NCT. However, the Union Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi. The legislative assembly was re-established in 1993 for the first time since 1956, with direct federal rule in the span. In addition, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj act. New Delhi, an urban area in Delhi, is the seat of both the State Government of Delhi and the Government of India. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace) and the Supreme Court of India are located in New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[38][39]
    Delhi was a traditional stronghold of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. In the 1990s the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) under the leadership of Madan Lal Khurana came into power. However in 1998, Congress regained power. Sheila Dixit of Congress is the incumbent Chief Minister. The Congress retained power in the Legislative Assembly in the 2003 election as well by a large margin. However, in 2007, the BJP scored a crushing victory over the ruling Congress in the MCD election, signalling a near certain return to power in the elections of Dec, 2008. Both parties have advocated full-fledged statehood for Delhi, but the process to establish this has been slow.
    [edit] Utility services

    NDMC Building, also known as the Palika Kendra.
    The water supply in Delhi is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2006, it supplied 650 MGD (million gallons per day) of water, while the water demand for 2005–06 was estimated to be 963 MGD.[40] The rest of the demand is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is the largest water source for DJB, followed by river Yamuna and Ganges.[40] With falling groundwater level and rising population density, Delhi faces severely acute water shortage. Delhi daily produces 8000 tonnes of solid wastes which is dumped at three landfill sites by MCD.[41] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[42] A large portion of the sewerage flows untreated into the river Yamuna.[42]
    The city's per capita electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh but actual demand is much more.[43] In 1997, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) replaced Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking which was managed by the MCD. The DVB itself cannot generate adequate power to meet the city's demand and borrows power from India's Northern Region Grid. As a result, Delhi faces a power shortage resulting in frequent blackouts and brownouts, especially during the summer season when energy demand is at its peak. Several industrial units in Delhi rely on their own electrical generators to meet their electric demand and for back up during Delhi's frequent and disruptive power cuts. A few years ago, the power sector in Delhi was handed over to private companies. The distribution of electricity is carried out by companies run by TATA'S & Reliance Energy Ltd. in Delhi. Delhi has 43 fire stations (under Delhi Fire Service) that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[44]
    State-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises like Hutch, Airtel, Idea cellular, Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. Cellular coverage is extensive, and both GSM and CDMA (from Reliance and Tata Indicom) services are available. Affordable broadband internet penetration is increasing in the city.[45]
    [edit] Economy

    Urban extensions of Delhi like Gurgaon and Noida have symbiotic association with the city.

    Connaught Place, Delhi's commercial hub
    With an estimated net State Domestic Product (SDP) of $ 95 billion as of 2005(INR) (for the year 2004–05),[46] Delhi is the second largest commercial center in South Asia after Mumbai. Delhi has a per capita income of 53,976 INR which is around 2.5 times of the national average.[46] The tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.2% and 3.85% contribution respectively.[46] Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population showing an increase of 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[47] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.[47] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.[47]
    In 2001, the total workforce in all government (union and state) and quasi government sector was 620,000. In comparison, organised private sector employed 219,000.[47] Delhi's service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism. Delhi's manufacturing industry has also grown considerably as many consumer goods industries have established manufacturing units and headquarters in and around Delhi. Delhi's large consumer market, coupled with the easy availability of skilled labour, has attracted foreign investment in Delhi. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers while the number of industrial units was 129,000.[48] Construction, power, telecommunications, health and community services, and real estate form integral parts of Delhi's economy. Delhi's retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries in India.[49] However, as in the rest of India, the fast growth of retail is expected to affect the traditional unorganized retail trading system.[50]
    [edit] Transport

    Delhi metro, operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited
    Main article: Transport in Delhi
    Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways.
    Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand.[51] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses.[52] Though pollution from road transport has decreased in recent years, it is still at a high level.[53]
    The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system, serves many parts of Delhi. As of 2007, the metro operates three lines with a total length of 65 km (40 miles) and 59 stations while several other lines are under construction.[54] Line 1 runs between Rithala and Shahdara. Line 2 runs in an underground tunnel between Vishwa Vidyalaya and the Central Secretariat. Line 3 runs between Indraprastha, Barakhamba Road, and Dwarka.

    Indira Gandhi International Airport is the prime airport in Delhi
    Railways served only 1% of the local traffic until 2003.[51] However Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The four main railway stations are Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Sarai Rohilla and New Delhi Railway Station.[51]
    Auto rickshaws are an important and popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed Natural Gas and are yellow and green in colour.
    Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. The DTC, the Indian Tourism Ministry and various private operators operate most taxis. The Tourism Ministry grants private companies permits to operate taxis.
    Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI) is situated in the southwestern corner of Delhi and serves for domestic and international connections. In 2005–06, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 8.5 million passengers,[55] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose.[56] The proposed Taj International Airport is expected to be operational by 2012[57]

    The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[58] showcases modern forms of public and private transport
    Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[51] At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India.[51] Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[59]
    Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[51] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.[60]
    [edit] Demographics

    The Akshardham Temple in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world.[61]
    Many ethnic groups and cultures are represented in Delhi, making it a cosmopolitan city. A seat of political power and a centre of commerce, the city attracts workers—both blue collar and white collar—from all parts of India, further enhancing its diverse character. A diplomatic hub, represented by embassies of 160 countries, Delhi has a large expatriate population as well.
    According to the 2001 Census of India, the population of Delhi that year was 13,782,976.[2] The corresponding population density was 9,294 persons per km², with a sex ratio of 821 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 81.82%. The literacy rate on increase day by day with more number of people studying higher and professional education. By 2003, the National Capital Territory of Delhi had a population of 14.1 million people, making it the second largest metropolitan area in India after Mumbai.[62] This included 295,000 people living in New Delhi and another 125,000 in Delhi Cantonment. By 2004, the estimated population had increased to 15,279,000. That year, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate (per 1000 population) were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively.[63] According a 1999–2000 estimate, the total number of people living below the poverty line in Delhi was 1,149,000 (which was 8.23% of the total population).[64] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by an additional 215,000 as a result of natural population growth.[63] The resulting high migration rate, made Delhi is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the third largest agglomeration in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai.[62]

    Connaught Place is a popular attraction in Delhi
    Hinduism is the religion of 82% of Delhi's population. There are also large communities of Muslims (11.7%), Sikhs (4.0%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.9%) in the city [65]. Other minorities include Parsis, Anglo-Indians, Buddhists and Jews.[66]
    Hindi is the principal spoken and written language of the city. Other languages commonly spoken in the city are English, Punjabi and Urdu. Of these, English is an associate official language, and Punjabi and Urdu second official languages. Linguistic groups from all over India are well represented in the city; among them are Maithili, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Bengali and Marathi. Punjabis, Jats and Gujjars are examples of the various ethnic communities in the city.
    In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in the 35 cities in India with populations of one million or more.[67] The city also has the highest rate of crime against women (27.6 compared to national average rate of 14.1 per 100,000) and against children (6.5 compared to national average of 1.4 per 100,000) in the country.[68]
    [edit] Culture

    The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa, commonly known as Jama Masjid, is the largest mosque in India.

    Rice and Chicken Chilli from Delhi.

    Traditional Indian pottery on display in Dilli Haat.
    Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. This is exemplified by the many monuments of significance found in the city; the Archaeological Survey of India recognises 175 monuments in Delhi as national heritage sites.[7] The Old City is the site where the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architectural marvels like the Jama Masjid (India's largest mosque)[69] and Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi.[70] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar (an 18th century astronomical observatory) and the Purana Qila (a 16th century fortress). The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham and the Bahá'í Lotus Temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of the British colonial architecture. Important structures include the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style
    Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events such as Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in Delhi. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[71] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might.[72][73]
    Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Jain Paryushan Parv, Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Maha Shivaratri, Eid-ul-fitr, Eid-ul-azha, Phulwalon Ki Sair and Buddha Jayanti.[73] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event.[74] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi.
    Punjabi cuisine and Mughlai delicacies like kababs and biryanis are popular in several parts of Delhi.[75][76] Due to Delhi's large cosmopolitan population, cuisines from every part of India, including Rajasthani, Maharashtrian, Bengali, Hyderabadi cuisines, and South Indian food items like idli, sambar and dosa are widely available. Local delicacies include Chaat and Dahi-Papri. There are several food outlets in Delhi serving international cuisine including Italian and Chinese.
    Historically, Delhi has always remained an important trading centre in northern India. Old Delhi still contains legacies of its rich Mughal past that can be found among the old city's tangle of snaking lanes and teeming bazaars.[77] The dingy markets of the Old City has an eclectic product range from oil-swamped mango, lime and eggplant pickles, candy-colored herbal potions to silver jewelry, bridal attire, uncut material and linen, spices, sweets.[77] Some of old regal havelis (palacial residences) are still there in the Old City.[9] Chandni Chowk, a three century old shopping area, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewelery and Zari saris.[78] Notable among Delhi's arts and crafts are the Zardozi (an embroidery done with gold thread) and Meenakari (the art of enameling). Dilli Haat, Hauz Khas, Pragati Maidan offer a variety of Indian handicrafts and handlooms. However, the city is said to have lost its own identity and socio-cultural legacies as it went to absorb multitude of humanity from across the country and has morphed into an amorphous pool of cultural styles.[10][11]
    [edit] Education
    See also: Educational Institutions in Delhi

    Central lawn of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences.
    Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government, or private organizations. In 2004–05, there were 2,515 primary, 635 middle, 504 secondary and 1,208 senior secondary schools in Delhi. That year, the higher education institutions in the city included 165 colleges, among them five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[79] six universities—DU, JNU, JMI, GGSIPU, IGNOU and Jamia Hamdard, —and nine deemed universities.[79]. GGSIPU is the only state university; IGNOU is for open/distance learning; the rest are all central universities.
    Private schools in Delhi—which employ either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of two administering bodies: the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[79] Female students represented 49% of the total enrollment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[79]
    After completing the ten-year secondary phase of their education under the 10+2+3 plan, students typically spend the next two years either in junior colleges or in schools with senior secondary facilities, during which their studies become more focused. They select a stream of study—liberal arts, commerce, science, or, less commonly, vocational. Upon completion, those who choose to continue, either study for a 3-year undergraduate degree at a college, or a professional degree in law, engineering, or medicine. Notable higher education or research institutes in Delhi include All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi College of Engineering, School of Planing and Architecture, Delhi School of Economics, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, Shri Ram College of Commerce and Sri Venkateswara College.
    [edit] Media

    All India Radio's headquarters, Akashvani Bhavan, in New Delhi.
    As the capital of India, New Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Indian parliament sessions. Many country-wide media agencies, among them the state-owned Press Trust of India and Doordarshan, are based in the city. Television programming in the city includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English and regional-languages cable channels offered by Multi system operators. Satellite television, in contrast, is yet to gain large-scale subscribership in the city.[80]
    Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. During the year 2004–05, 1029 newspapers—in thirteen languages—were published from the city. Of these, 492 were Hindi language newspapers, and included Navbharat Times, Dainik Hindustan, Punjab Kesri, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and fastest growing weekly The Stageman International.[81] Among the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with over a million copies in circulation, was the single largest daily.[81] Other major English newspapers include Indian Express, Business standard, Times of India, The Hindu, The Pioneer and Asian Age. Recently in the year 2006 two English daily tabloids were launched in Delhi. While one is a joint production of Times of India and Hindustan Times named "Metro Now", the other is Mumbai's most famous and widely recognised tabloid "MiD DAY". With the launch of the tabloids, the culture of reading tabloids in Delhi is fast catching up. Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has been gaining ground[82] since the inauguration of several new FM channels in 2006.[83] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi, including All India Radio (AIR), one of the world's largest radio service providers, which offers six radio channels in ten languages. Other city-based radio stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 FM), Red FM (93.5 FM) and Radio City (91.1 FM).
    [edit] Sports

    The Jawharlal Nehru Stadium is the second largest stadium in the world
    As in the rest of India, cricket is a popular sport in Delhi.[84] There are several cricket grounds (or maidans) located across the city, including the Feroz Shah Kotla stadium, one of the oldest cricket grounds in India to be granted status as venue for international cricket matches. The Delhi cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, a domestic first-class cricket championship played between different cities and states of India.[85] Other sports such as field hockey, Football (soccer), tennis, golf, badminton, swimming, kart racing, weightlifting and table tennis are also popular in the city.
    Sports facilities in Delhi include the Jawharlal Nehru Stadium and the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium. In the past, Delhi has hosted several domestic and international sporting events, such as the First and the Ninth Asian Games.[86] The coming years will see the city host the 2010 Commonwealth Games, projected to be the largest multi-sport event ever held in the city. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[87] but is bidding for 2020 Olympic Games.[86][88] Delhi was chosen by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile to host the first ever Indian Grand Prix in 2010.[89]
    [edit] References
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    3. ^ The Principal Agglomerations of the World. Thomas Brinkhoff (22 November 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
    4. ^ Principal Agglomerations of the World
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    6. ^ Table 3.1: Delhi Last 10 Years (1991–2001) — Administrative Set Up (PDF). Economic Survey of Delhi, 2001–2002 p177. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
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    10. ^ a b Menon, Anjolie Ela (July 2002). "The Age That Was". Seminar (web edition) (515). Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
    11. ^ a b Dayal, Ravi (July 2002). "A Kayastha’s View". Seminar (web edition) (515). Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
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    81. ^ a b General Review. Registrar of Newspapers for India. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
    82. ^ Naqvi, Farah (14 November 2006). Chapter4: Towards a Mass Media Campaign: Analysing the relationship between target audiences and mass media (PDF). Images and icons: Harnessing the Power of Mass Media to Promote Gender Equality and Reduce Practices of Sex Selection 26–36. BBC World Service Trust. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
    83. ^ Delhi: Radio Stations in Delhi, India. ASIAWAVES: Radio and TV Broadcasting in South and South-East Asia. Alan G. Davies (15 November 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
    84. ^ Camenzuli, Charles. Cricket may be included in the 2010 Games. Interview. International Sports Press Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
    85. ^ Cricinfo staff. A Brief History: The Ranji Trophy. Cricinfo. The Wisden Group. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
    86. ^ a b "India to bid for 2014 Asian Games", South Asia, BBC, 29 March 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
    87. ^ "New Delhi loses bid", The Hindu, The Hindu, April 18 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
    88. ^ Delhi To Bid For 2020 Summer Games. Menscerto Inc. (April 28 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
    89. ^ "India agree grand prix", BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
    Further reading
    Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved on 12 February 2007.
    First City? A Symposium on Remembering Delhi Seminar (web edition) (515) (July 2002). Retrieved on 12 February 2007.
    Horton, P (2002), Lonely Planet Delhi (3 ed.), Lonely Planet Publications, ISBN 1864502975
    Rowe, P & P Coster (2004), Delhi (Great Cities of the World), World Almanac Library, ISBN 0836851978
    [edit] See also
    National Capital Region

  • title-3733643

    Indian Railways

    भारतीय रेल, Indian Railways

    Government Owned

    Founded April 16, 1853, nationalized in 1951

    Headquarters New Delhi, India

    Area served India

    Key people Union Railway Minister:
    Laloo Prasad Yadav
    Minister of State for Railways (V):
    R. Velu
    Minister of State for Railways (R):
    Naranbhai J Rathwa
    Chairman, Railway Board:
    Kalyan C.Jena.
    Railways and Locomotives

    Rail transport, Cargo Transport, Services

    ▲ INR 1,24,545 Crores (~30.5BUSD)

    Ministry of Railways (India)
    16 Railway Zones (excluding Konkan Railway)
    "lifeline of the nation"

    Indian Railways (Hindi भारतीय रेल), abbreviated as (Hindi भारे ) IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. The Ministry is headed by a cabinet rank Railways Minister, while the Department is managed by the Railway Board. Indian Railways is not a private corporate body; however, of late IR has adopted a corporate management style.
    Indian Railways has a total state monopoly on India's rail transport. It is one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting sixteen million passengers[1] and more than one million tonnes of freight daily.[2] IR is the world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.6 million employees.[3]
    The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country; the routes cover a total length of 63,140 km (39,233 miles). As of 2002, IR owned a total of 216,717 wagons, 39,263 coaches and 7,739 locomotives and ran a total of 14,444 trains daily, including about 8,702 passenger trains.[2]
    Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By 1947, the year of India's independence, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalized as one unit, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. Indian Railways operates both long distance and suburban rail systems.
    1 History
    2 Railway zones
    3 Passenger services
    4 Production Services
    5 Suburban rail
    6 Freight
    7 Notable trains and achievements
    8 Organisational structure
    9 Rail budget and finances
    10 Current issues and upgrades
    11 Photo Gallery
    12 See also
    13 Notes
    14 References
    15 External links

    [edit] History

    Bombay Thana Train, 1853 -- One of the earliest pictures of railways in India
    Main article: History of rail transport in India
    A plan for a rail system in India was first put forward in 1832, but no further steps were taken for more than a decade. In 1844, the Governor-General of India Lord Hardinge allowed private entrepreneurs to set up a rail system in India. Two new railway companies were created and the East India Company was asked to assist them. Interest from investors in the UK led to the rapid creation of a rail system over the next few years. The first train in India became operational on 22 December 1851, and was used for the hauling of construction material in Roorkee. A year and a half later, on 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thane. Covering a distance of 34 km (21 miles), it was hauled by three locomotives, Sahib, Sindh and Sultan. This was the formal birth of railways in India.

    A view of the Burdwan Railway Station in 1855
    The British government encouraged new railway companies backed by private investors under a scheme that would guarantee an annual return of five percent during the initial years of operation. Once established, the company would be transferred to the government, with the original company retaining operational control. The route mileage of this network was about 14,500 km (9,000 miles) by 1880, mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay (Mumbai), Madras (Chennai) and Calcutta ( Kolkata). By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896 sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railway.

    Extent of Great Indian Peninsular Railway network in 1870. The GIPR was one of the largest rail companies at that time.
    Soon various independent kingdoms built their own rail systems and the network spread to the regions that became the modern-day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. A Railway Board was constituted in 1901, but decision-making power was retained by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon. The Railway Board operated under aegis of the Department of Commerce and Industry and had three members: a government railway official serving as chairman, a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a tidy profit. In 1907, almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government.
    The following year, the first electric locomotive appeared. With the arrival of the First World War, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. By the end of the First World War, the railways had suffered immensely and were in a poor state. The government took over the management of the Railways and removed the link between the financing of the Railways and other governmental revenues in 1920, a practice that continues to date with a separate railway budget.
    The Second World War severely crippled the railways as trains were diverted to the Middle East, and the railway workshops were converted into munitions workshops. At the time of independence in 1947, a large portion of the railways went to the then newly formed Pakistan. A total of forty-two separate railway systems, including thirty-two lines owned by the former Indian princely states, were amalgamated as a single unit which was christened as the Indian Railways.
    The existing rail networks were abandoned in favour of zones in 1951 and a total of six zones came into being in 1952. As the economy of India improved, almost all railway production units were indigenised. By 1985, steam locomotives were phased out in favour of diesel and electric locomotives. The entire railway reservation system was streamlined with computerisation in 1995.
    Indian Railways is the second largest employer in the world, after the Chinese military.[citation needed]
    [edit] Railway zones

    A schematic map of the Indian Railway network
    For administrative purposes, Indian Railways is divided into seventeen zones.
    Sl. No Name Abbr. Date Established Headquarters Divisions
    1. Northern Railway
    NR April 14, 1952
    Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad

    2. North Eastern Railway
    NER 1952 Gorakhpur
    Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi

    3. Northeast Frontier Railway
    NFR 1958 Guwahati
    Alipurduar, Katihar, Lumding, Rangia, Tinsukia

    4. Eastern Railway
    ER April, 1952 Kolkata
    Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda

    5. South Eastern Railway
    SER 1955 Kolkata
    Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi

    6. South Central Railway
    SCR October 2, 1966
    Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada

    7. Southern Railway
    SR April 14, 1951
    Chennai, Madurai, Palghat, Tiruchchirapalli, Trivandrum, Salem (Coimbatore)

    8. Central Railway
    CR November 5, 1951
    Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur

    9. Western Railway
    WR November 5, 1951
    Mumbai Central, Baroda, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar

    10. South Western Railway
    SWR April 1, 2003
    Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore

    11. North Western Railway
    NWR October 1, 2002
    Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur

    12. West Central Railway
    WCR April 1, 2003
    Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota

    13. North Central Railway
    NCR April 1, 2003
    Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi

    14. South East Central Railway
    SECR April 1, 2003
    Bilaspur, CG
    Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur

    15. East Coast Railway
    ECoR April 1, 2003
    Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Visakhapatnam

    16. East Central Railway
    ECR October 1, 2002
    Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur

    17. Konkan Railway†
    KR January 26, 1998
    Navi Mumbai
    †Konkan Railway (KR) is constituted as a separately incorporated railway, with its headquarters at Belapur CBD (Navi Mumbai). It comes under the control of the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board.
    The Calcutta Metro is owned and operated by Indian Railways, but is not a part of any of the zones. It is administratively considered to have the status of a zonal railway. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-seven divisions.

    A better[citation needed] schematic Map of Indian Railway Network
    [edit] Passenger services

    A DMU Train

    An AC 3-tier coach
    Indian Railways operates 8,702 passenger trains and transports 15 million daily across twenty-eight states and three union territories (Delhi, Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry) and Chandigarh). Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya are the only states not connected.
    The passenger division is the most preferred form of long distance transport in most of the country.
    A standard passenger train consists of eighteen coaches, but some popular trains can have up to 24 coaches. Coaches are designed to accommodate anywhere from 18 to 72 passengers, but may actually accommodate many more during the holiday seasons and on busy routes. The coaches in use are vestibules, but some of these may be dummied on some trains for operational reasons. Freight trains use a large variety of wagons.
    Each coach has different accommodation class; the most popular being the sleeper class. Up to nine of these type coaches are usually coupled. Air conditioned coaches are also attached, and a standard train may have between three and five air-conditioned coaches. Online unreserved passenger ticketing (suburban and non-suburban), introduced in 2002, is now available in about 1000 stations (2008) and is expected to top 1,00,00,000 tickets per day by the time it is installed in all 5000 stations. ATMs in many stations are equipped to dispense long-distance tickets, and some ATMs are even being installed on board select trains as well. Rail ticket booking through cell(ular) phone SMS is also being put in place.
    [edit] Production Services

    A WAP5 locomotive
    The Indian Railways manufactures a lot of its rolling stock and heavy engineering components. This is largely due to historical reasons. As with most developing economies, the main reason is import substitution of expensive technology related products. This was relevant when the general state of the national engineering industry was immature.
    Production Units, the manufacturing plants of the Indian Railways, are managed directly by the ministry. The General Managers of the PUs report to the Railway Board. The Production Units are:
    Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan
    Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi
    Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala
    Integral Coach Factory, Chennai
    Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala
    Rail Wheel Factory, Bangalore
    Other independent units of Indian Railways are:
    Central Organization For Railway Electrification, Allahabad
    Central Organization For Modernization of Workshops, New Delhi
    Important maintenance workshops on IR are:
    Southern Railway Workshop, Ponmalai (Golden Rock), Tiruchirapalli
    Rail Spring Karkhana, Gwalior
    Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bangalore (BEML) is not part of railways, but manufactures coaches for IR and Metro coaches for DMRC and going forward for Bangalore Metro also.
    [edit] Suburban rail

    The New Delhi Metro railway
    Many cities have their own dedicated suburban networks to cater to commuters. Currently, suburban networks operate in Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Delhi, Hyderabad and Pune. Hyderabad, and Pune do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share the tracks with long distance trains. New Delhi, Kolkata, and Chennai have their own metro networks, namely the New Delhi Metro, the Kolkata Metro,and the Chennai MRTS- Mass Rapid Transport System, with dedicated tracks mostly laid on a flyover as in other local EMU suburban service in Mumbai and Kolkata.
    Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are mostly electric multiple units. They usually have nine coaches or sometimes twelve to handle rush hour traffic (Hyderabad MMTS; abbreviation for Multi Modal Transport System has mostly six coach train with a single nine coach one). One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in Mumbai run on direct current, while those elsewhere use alternating current.[4] A standard coach is designed to accommodate 96 seated passengers, but the actual number of passengers can easily double or triple with standees during rush hour. The Kolkata metro has the administrative status of a zonal railway, though it does not come under the seventeen railway zones.

    Mumbai's suburban (local) [2] trains handle 3 million people annually
    The Suburban trains in Mumbai handle more rush than any other suburban network in the world.[citation needed] The network has three lines viz, western, central and harbour. The Central Line starts from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) (Formerly Victoria Terminus or VT) and runs for more than 100 km till Kasara. The Western Line starting from Churchgate runs again for more than 100 km till Dahanu Road. It is thus the longest suburban rail system in the world. Also, it is busiest suburban network in the world, in the sense that it carries more than 6 million passengers each day. On 11 July 2006 six bombs were set off on these trains, targeted at the general public.
    [edit] Freight

    A single line rail bridge

    The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is a World Heritage Site, and one of the few places where steam engines are still in operation in India.

    A Beyer Garrett 6594 Engine seen at the National Rail Museum
    IR carries a huge variety of goods ranging from mineral ores, fertilizers and petrochemicals, agricultural produce, iron & steel, multimodal traffic and others. Ports and major urban areas have their own dedicated freight lines and yards. Many important freight stops have dedicated platforms and independent lines.
    Indian Railways makes 70% of its revenues and most of its profits from the freight sector, and uses these profits to cross-subsidise the loss-making passenger sector. However, competition from trucks which offer cheaper rates has seen a decrease in freight traffic in recent years. Since the 1990s, Indian Railways has switched from small consignments to larger container movement which has helped speed up its operations. Most of its freight earnings come from such rakes carrying bulk goods such as coal, cement, food grains and iron ore.
    Indian Railways also transports vehicles over long distances. Trucks that carry goods to a particular location are hauled back by trains saving the trucking company on unnecessary fuel expenses. Refrigerated vans are also available in many areas. The "Green Van" is a special type used to transport fresh food and vegetables. Recently Indian Railways introduced the special 'Container Rajdhani' or CONRAJ, for high priority freight. The highest speed notched up for a freight train is 100 km/h (62 mph) for a 4,700 metric tonne load.
    Recent changes have sought to boost the earnings from freight. A privatization scheme was introduced recently to improve the performance of freight trains. Companies are being allowed to run their own container trains. The first length of an 11,000 km freight corridor linking India's biggest cities has recently been approved. The railways has increased load limits for the system's 220,000 freight wagons by 11%, legalizing something that was already happening. Due to increase in manufacturing transport in India that was augmented by the increase in fuel cost, transportation by rail became advantageous financially. New measures such as speeding up the turnaround times have added some 24% to freight revenues.
    [edit] Notable trains and achievements
    The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a narrow gauge railway that still regularly uses steam as well as diesel locomotives is classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The route started earlier at Siliguri and now at New Jalpaiguri in the plains in West Bengal and traverses tea gardens en route to Darjeeling, a hill station at an elevation of 2,134 metres (7,000 ft). The highest station in this route is Ghum. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, in the Nilgiri Hills in southern India, is also classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.[5] It is also the only rack railway in India. The Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) railway station in Mumbai is another World Heritage Site operated by Indian Railways.

    Railway Pantry Cars

    Emergency Openable window in passenger trains
    The Palace on Wheels is a specially designed train, frequently hauled by a steam locomotive, for promoting tourism in Rajasthan. The Maharashtra government did try to introduce the Deccan Odyssey along the Konkan route, but it did not enjoy the same success as the Palace on Wheels. The Samjhauta Express is a train that runs between India and Pakistan. However, hostilities between the two nations in 2001 saw the line being closed. It was reopened when the hostilities subsided in 2004. Another train connecting Khokhrapar (Pakistan) and Munabao (India) is the Thar Express that restarted operations on February 18, 2006; it was closed down after the 1965 Indo-Pak war. The Kalka Shimla Railway till recently featured in the Guinness Book of World Records for offering the steepest rise in altitude in the space of 96 kilometres.[6]
    The Lifeline Express is a special train popularly known as the "Hospital-on-Wheels" which provides healthcare to the rural areas. This train has a carriage that serves as an operating room, a second one which serves as a storeroom and an additional two that serve as a patient ward. The train travels around the country, staying at a location for about two months before moving elsewhere.
    Among the famous locomotives, the Fairy Queen is the oldest running locomotive on the mainline (though only for specials) in the world today, though the distinction of the oldest surviving locomotive that has recently seen service belongs to John Bull. Kharagpur railway station also has the distinction of being the world's longest railway platform at 1072 m (3,517 ft). The Ghum station along the Darjeeling Toy Train route is the second highest railway station in the world to be reached by a steam locomotive.[7] Indian Railways operates 7,566 locomotives; 37,840 Coaching vehicles and 222,147 freight wagons. There are a total of 6,853 stations; 300 yards; 2,300 goods-sheds; 700 repair shops and a total workforce of 1.54 million.[8]
    The shortest named station is Ib and the longest is Sri Venkatanarasimharajuvaripeta. The Himsagar Express, between Kanyakumari and Jammu Tawi, has the longest run in terms of distance and time on Indian Railways network. It covers 3,745 km (2,327 miles) in about 74 hours and 55 minutes. The Bhopal Shatabdi Express is the fastest train in India today having a maximum speed of 140 km/h (87 mph) on the Faridabad-Agra section. The fastest speed attained by any train is 184 km/h (114 mph) in 2000 during test runs. This speed is much lower than fast trains in other parts of the world. The difference in these speeds could be in part attributed to the fact that the trains run on existing tracks, which were not designed for such high speeds.
    [edit] Organisational structure

    The headquarters of the Indian Railways in Delhi
    Indian Railways is a department of the Government, being owned and controlled by the Government of India, via the Ministry of Railways rather than a private company. As of 2007, the Railway Ministry is currently headed by Laloo Prasad Yadav, the Union Minister for Railways and assisted by two junior Ministers of State for Railways, R. Velu and Naranbhai J. Rathwa. Indian Railways is administered by the Railway Board, which has six members and a chairman.
    Each of the sixteen zones is headed by a General Manager (GM) who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal & telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration. In addition to the zones, the six production units (PUs) are each headed by a General Manager (GM), who also reports directly to the Railway Board.
    In addition to this the Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE), Metro Railway, Calcutta and construction organisation of N F Railway are also headed by a General Manager. CORE is located at Allahabad. This organisation undertakes electrification projects of Indian Railway and monitors the progress of various electrification projects all over the country.
    Apart from these zones and production units, a number of Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) are under the administrative control of the ministry of railways. These PSU units are:
    1. Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India
    2. Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation
    3. Konkan Railway Corporation
    4. Indian Railway Finance Corporation
    5. Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation
    6. Railtel Corporation of India – Telecommunication Networks
    7. RITES Ltd. – Consulting Division of Indian Railways
    8. IRCON International Ltd. – Construction Division
    9. Rail Vikas Nigam Limited
    10. Container Corporation Limited
    11. Rail Land Development Authority –for land management
    12. Centre for Railway Information Systems is an autonomous society under Railway Board, which is responsible for developing the major software required by Indian Railways for its operations.
    [edit] Rail budget and finances

    A sample ticket; fares on the network are among the cheapest in the world.
    The Railway Budget deals with the induction and improvement of existing trains and routes, the modernisation and most importantly the tariff for freight and passenger travel. The Parliament discusses the policies and allocations proposed in the budget. The budget needs to be passed by a simple majority in the Lok Sabha (India's Lower House). The comments of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) are non binding. Indian Railways are subject to the same audit control as other government revenue and expenditures. Based on the anticipated traffic and the projected tariff, the level of resources required for railway's capital and revenue expenditure is worked out. While the revenue expenditure is met entirely by railways itself, the shortfall in the capital (plan) expenditure is met partly from borrowings (raised by Indian Railway Finance Corporation) and the rest from Budgetory support from the Central Government. Indian Railways pays dividend to the Central Government for the capital invested by the Central Government.
    As per the Separation Convention (on the recommendations of the Acworth Committee), 1924, the Railway Budget is presented to the Parliament by the Union Railway Minister, two days prior to the General Budget, usually around 26 February. Though the Railway Budget is separately presented to the Parliament, the figures relating to the receipt and expenditure of the Railways are also shown in the General Budget, since they are a part and parcel of the total receipts and expenditure of the Government of India. This document serves as a balance sheet of operations of the Railways during the previous year and lists out plans for expansion for the current year.

    A 'Rail Over Bridge' under construction in Guntur Division.
    The formation of policy and overall control of the railways is vested in Railway Board comprising the Chairman, Financial Commissioner and other functional Members for Traffic, Engineering, Mechanical, Electrical and Staff matters. As per the 2006 budget, Indian Railways earned Rs. 54,600 crores[9] (Rs. 546,000 million or US$12,300 million). Freight earnings increased by 10% from Rs. 30,450 cr (US$7,000 million) in the previous year. Passenger earnings, other coaching earnings and sundry other earnings increased by 7%, 19% and 56% respectively over previous year. Its year end fund balance is expected to stand at Rs. 11,280 cr (2.54 billion US$).[10]
    Around 20% of the passenger revenue is earned from the upper class segments of the passenger segment (the air-conditioned classes). The overall passenger traffic grew 7.5% in the previous year. In the first two months of India's fiscal year 2005–06 (April and May), the Railways registered a 10% growth in passenger traffic, and a 12% in passenger earnings.[11]
    A new concern faced by Indian Railways is competition from low cost airlines that has recently made its début in India. In a cost cutting move, the Railways plans to minimise unwanted cessations, and scrap unpopular routes.
    [edit] Current issues and upgrades
    Although accidents such as derailment and collisions are less common in recent times, many are run over by trains, especially in crowded areas. Indian Railways have accepted the fact that given the size of operations, eliminating accidents is an unrealistic goal, and at best they can only minimize the accident rate. Human error is the primary cause (83%)[12] blamed for mishaps. The Konkan Railway route suffers from landslides in the monsoon season, which has caused fatal accidents in the recent past.
    Contributing to the Railways' problems are the antiquated communication, safety and signaling equipment. One area of upgrading badly required is an automated signaling system to prevent crashes. A number of train accidents happened due to a manual system of signals between stations. However, the changeover to a new system would require a substantial investment. It is felt that this would be required given the gradual increase in train speeds and lengths, that would make accidents more dangerous. In the latest instances of signaling control by means of interlinked stations (e.g., Chennai - Washermanpet), failure-detection circuits are provided for each track circuit and signal circuit with notification to the signal control centres in case of problems.[13] However, this is available in a very small subset of the total Railways.
    Aging colonial-era bridges and century-old tracks also require regular maintenance and upgrading. In recent years Indian Railways has laid claim to a financial turnaround, with (unaudited) operating profits expected to improve by 83.7%.[14] Credit for this achievement has been claimed by current Indian Railway Minister, Mr Lalu Prasad Yadav, who asserts that he made significant improvements in operating efficiency of goods traffic after he took over as Railway Minister in May 2004.[15]
    The Rajdhani Express and Shatabadi Express are the fastest and most luxurious trains of Indian Railways, though they face new competition from air travel, as the trains travel only 80 km per hour (c.f. Fastest trains in India) and their food and service are only now being upgraded.[16] To modernize Indian Rail and to bring it up to par with the developed world, would require a massive investment of about US$100 billion.[17]
    Sixth Pay Commission has been constituted in India to review the pay structure of the Government employees and its recommendations are expected by the end of 2008 and based on its recommendations, the salaries of all Railways officers and staff are expected to be revised with retrospective effect (w.e.f. January 1, 2006). If previous Pay Commissions are taken as an indicator, this revision will not be less than 50% and it may have an impact on the Railways operating costs.
    Plans to upgrade stations, coaches, tracks, services, and security are underway.[18] Twenty-two of the largest stations are set for an overhaul by private contract. All meter gauge lines in the country will be converted to broad gauge. New LHB German coaches, manufactured in India, were scheduled to be introduced in 2007 on the daily run of the prestigious East Central Railway (ECR) Patna-New Delhi Radjhani Express. These coaches will enhance the safety and riding comfort of passengers, and in time will eventually replace thousands of old model coaches throughout Indian Railways. Three new manufacturing units will be set up to produce state-of-the-art locomotives and coaches.
    Sanitation and the use of modern technology in that area has been a problem, but starting in 2007 chemically-treated 'green toilets', developed by IIT Kanpur, will be introduced throughout the system, trains and stations alike. This makeover is expected to take three years and cost billions. New rodent-control and cleanliness procedures are also working their way into the many zones of IR. Central Railway's 'Operation Saturday' is gradually making progress, station by station, in the cleanup of it's Mumbai division.
    Base kitchens and food services across the system are also slated for a makeover, while rail ticket booking through ATMs on select trains and through cell(ular) phone SMS is being put in place. Channel music, TV screens showing the latest films, and optional menus from five-star hotels are being introduced on the Rajdhani and Shatabdi Express. A pilot project in commercial advertising on select trains is underway. Significantly, several IT initiatives are being phased in to better handle ticketing, freight, rolling stock (wagons), terminals, and rail traffic, including the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) for train tracking in real time. Upper management is also undergoing advanced training at prestigious institutions overseas to better handle change management in the system.
    [edit] Photo Gallery

    A view of the first train of the East Indian Railway in 1854.
    Howrah Station - The busiest railway station of India[citation needed]

    Delhi Metro, operational since 2002, is seen as a model for other metros. With growth in economy and technology, India is welcoming modernization.
    [edit] See also
    Fastest trains in India
    Indian locomotives
    Railways cricket team
    [edit] Notes
    1. ^ Indian railways chug into the future
    2. ^ a b Salient Features of Indian Railways. Figures as of 2002.
    3. ^ Guinness Book of World Records-2005, pg 93
    4. ^ [IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: Electric Traction - I
    5. ^ The Hindu newspaper online
    6. ^ Article in The Tribune
    7. ^ Indian Railways Site
    8. ^ Indian Railways stats
    9. ^ Indian numbering system. 1 crore = 10,000,000
    10. ^ Highlights of Rail Budget 2006-07. (1 USD = 44.36 INR as of 2006-02-27).
    11. ^ Times of India
    12. ^ Frontline magazine online, Amulya Gopalakrishnan, Volume 20–Issue 15, July 19– August 1, 2003
    13. ^ Indian Railways Signaling System, Indian Railways Signaling Systems
    14. ^
    15. ^ [1]
    16. ^ Business Travel Still On Track - Cover Story - FE Business Traveller
    17. ^ The Telegraph - Calcutta : Business
    18. ^ Railways to modernise six stations- Railways-Transportation-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times
    [edit] References
    Indian Railways FAQ. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 18, 2006.
    IR History: Early Days. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Railway Zones. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Famous Trains. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Freight Trains. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Miscellaneous material on Indian Railways. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 18, 2006.
    Trivia. Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Introductory History of Indian Railways. Glyn's Trains. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Salient Features of Indian Railways. Indian Railways. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Highlights of railway budget, 2006-07. Retrieved on February 27, 2006.
    Indian Railway takes the E-route. Times of India. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    The Rediff Interview. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    A poor track record. Frontline magazine online. Retrieved on June 19, 2005.
    Various authors (2004). Guinness Book of World Records-2005. Guinness World Records Ltd. ISBN 0-85112-192-6.
    To find route between any two stations. 90DI. Retrieved on September 12, 2007.

  • title-3728697

    Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.[1] Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions affecting agriculture, including temperature, precipitation and glacial run-off. These conditions determine the carrying capacity of the biosphere to produce enough food for the human population and domesticated animals. Rising carbon dioxide levels would also have effects, both detrimental and beneficial, on crop yields. The overall effect of climate change on agriculture will depend on the balance of these effects. Assessment of the effects of global climate changes on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and adapt farming to maximize agricultural production.

    At the same time, agriculture has been shown to produce significant effects on climate change, primarily through the production and release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, but also by altering the earth's land cover, which can change its ability to absorb or reflect heat and light, thus contributing to radiative forcing. Land use change such as deforestation and desertification, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide; agriculture itself is the major contributor to increasing methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in earth's atmosphere.[2]

    Contents [hide]
    1 Impact of climate change on agriculture
    1.1 Shortage in grain production
    1.2 Poverty impacts
    1.3 Crop development models
    1.4 Temperature potential effect on growing period
    1.5 Potential effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield
    1.6 Effect on quality
    1.7 Agricultural surfaces and climate changes
    1.8 Erosion and fertility
    1.9 Potential effects of global climate change on pests, diseases and weeds
    1.10 Glacier retreat and disappearance
    1.11 Ozone and UV-B
    2 Impact of agriculture on climate change
    2.1 Land use
    2.1.1 Livestock
    3 See also
    4 References
    5 External links

    [edit] Impact of climate change on agriculture
    This section needs additional citations for verification.
    Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007)

    Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. Consequently, agronomists consider any assessment has to be individually consider each local area.

    On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, on a national level to major importing countries, as well as comfortable income to exporting ones. The international aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need to also consider the effects of climate change on a global scale.

    A study published in Science suggest that, due to climate change, "southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize, by 2030. In South Asia losses of many regional staples, such as rice, millet and maize could top 10%".[3][4]

    The 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report concluded that the poorest countries would be hardest hit, with reductions in crop yields in most tropical and sub-tropical regions due to decreased water availability, and new or changed insect pest incidence. In Africa and Latin America many rainfed crops are near their maximum temperature tolerance, so that yields are likely to fall sharply for even small climate changes; falls in agricultural productivity of up to 30% over the 21st century are projected. Marine life and the fishing industry will also be severely affected in some places.

    Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops differently from region to region. For example, average crop yield is expected to drop down to 50% in Pakistan according to the UKMO scenario whereas corn production in Europe is expected to grow up to 25% in optimum hydrologic conditions.

    More favourable effects on yield tend to depend to a large extent on realization of the potentially beneficial effects of carbon dioxide on crop growth and increase of efficiency in water use. Decrease in potential yields is likely to be caused by shortening of the growing period, decrease in water availability and poor vernalization.

    In the long run, the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways :

    productivity, in terms of quantity and quality of crops
    agricultural practices, through changes of water use (irrigation) and agricultural inputs such as herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers
    environmental effects, in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage (leading to nitrogen leaching), soil erosion, reduction of crop diversity
    rural space, through the loss and gain of cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, and hydraulic amenities.
    adaptation, organisms may become more or less competitive, as well as humans may develop urgency to develop more competitive organisms, such as flood resistant or salt resistant varieties of rice.
    They are large uncertainties to uncover, particularly because there is lack of information on many specific local regions, and include the uncertainties on magnitude of climate change, the effects of technological changes on productivity, global food demands, and the numerous possibilities of adaptation.

    Most agronomists believe that agricultural production will be mostly affected by the severity and pace of climate change, not so much by gradual trends in climate. If change is gradual, there may be enough time for biota adjustment. Rapid climate change, however, could harm agriculture in many countries, especially those that are already suffering from rather poor soil and climate conditions, because there is less time for optimum natural selection and adaption.

    [edit] Shortage in grain production

    Crops such as these sunflowers can be affected by severe drought conditions in Australia.[5]Between 1996 and 2003, grain production has stabilized slightly over 1800 millions of tons. In 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, grain stocks have been dropping, resulting in a global grain harvest that was short of consumption by 93 millions of tons in 2003.

    The earth's average temperature has been rising since the late 1970s, with nine of the 10 warmest years on record occurring since 1995[6]. In 2002, India and the United States suffered sharp harvest reductions because of record temperatures and drought. In 2003 Europe suffered very low rainfall throughout spring and summer, and a record level of heat damaged most crops from the United Kingdom and France in the Western Europe through Ukraine in the East. Bread prices have been rising in several countries in the region. (see w:fr:canicule 2003).

    [edit] Poverty impacts
    Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) have investigated the potential impacts climate change could have on agriculture, and how this would affect attempts at alleviating poverty in the developing world. They argued that the effects from moderate climate change are likely to be mixed for developing countries. However, the vulnerability of the poor in developing countries to short term impacts from climate change, notably the increased frequency and severity of adverse weather events is likely to have a negative impact. This, they say, should be taken into account when defining agricultural policy.[7]

    [edit] Crop development models
    Models for climate behavior are frequently inconclusive. In order to further study effects of global warming on agriculture, other types of models, such as crop development models, yield prediction, quantities of water or fertilizer consumed, can be used. Such models condense the knowledge accumulated of the climate, soil, and effects observed of the results of various agricultural practices. They thus could make it possible to test strategies of adaptation to modifications of the environment.

    Because these models are necessarily simplifying natural conditions (often based on the assumption that weeds, disease and insect pests are controlled), it is not clear whether the results they give will have an in-field reality. However, some results are partly validated with an increasing number of experimental results.

    Other models, such as insect and disease development models based on climate projections are also used (for example simulation of aphid reproduction or septoria (cereal fungal disease) development).

    Scenarios are used in order to estimate climate changes effects on crop development and yield. Each scenario is defined as a set of meteorological variables, based on generally accepted projections. For example, many models are running simulations based on doubled carbon dioxide projections, temperatures raise ranging from 1°C up to 5°C, and with rainfall levels an increase or decrease of 20%. Other parameters may include humidity, wind, and solar activity. Scenarios of crop models are testing farm-level adaptation, such as sowing date shift, climate adapted species (vernalisation need, heat and cold resistance), irrigation and fertilizer adaptation, resistance to disease. Most developed models are about wheat, maize, rice and soybean.

    [edit] Temperature potential effect on growing period
    Duration of crop growth cycles are above all, related to temperature. An increase in temperature will speed up development. In the case of an annual crop, the duration between sowing and harvesting will shorten (for example, the duration in order to harvest corn could shorten between one and four weeks). The shortening of such a cycle could have an adverse effect on productivity because senescence would occur sooner.

    [edit] Potential effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield
    Carbon dioxide is essential to plant growth. Rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative consequences.

    Increased CO2 is expected to have positive physiological effects by increasing the rate of photosynthesis. Currently, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 380 parts per million. In comparison, the amount of oxygen is 210,000 ppm. This means that often plants may be starved of carbon dioxide, being outnumbered by the photosynthetic pollutant oxygen. The effects of an increase in carbon dioxide would be higher on C3 crops (such as wheat) than on C4 crops (such as maize), because the former is more susceptible to carbon dioxide shortage. Under optimum conditions of temperature and humidity, the yield increase could reach 36%, if the levels of carbon dioxide are doubled.[citation needed]

    However, other studies also show a change in harvest quality. The growth improvement in C3 plants could favor vegetative biomass on grain biomass; thus leading to a decrease in grain production yield.

    [edit] Effect on quality
    According to the IPCC's TAR, "The importance of climate change impacts on grain and forage quality emerges from new research. For rice, the amylose content of the grain--a major determinant of cooking quality--is increased under elevated CO2" (Conroy et al., 1994). Cooked rice grain from plants grown in high-CO2 environments would be firmer than that from today's plants. However, concentrations of iron and zinc, which are important for human nutrition, would be lower (Seneweera and Conroy, 1997). Moreover, the protein content of the grain decreases under combined increases of temperature and CO2 (Ziska et al., 1997)."[8]

    Studies have shown that higher CO2 levels lead to reduced plant uptake of nitrogen (and a smaller number showing the same for trace elements such as zinc) resulting in crops with lower nutritional value.[9][10] This would primarily impact on populations in poorer countries less able to compensate by eating more food, more varied diets, or possibly taking supplements.

    Reduced nitrogen content in grazing plants has also been shown to reduce animal productivity in sheep, which depend on microbes in their gut to digest plants, which in turn depend on nitrogen intake.[11]

    [edit] Agricultural surfaces and climate changes
    Climate change is likely to increase the amount of arable land near the poles by reduction of the amount of frozen lands. Sea levels are expected to get up to one meter higher by 2100, though this projection is disputed. A rise in the sea level would result in an agricultural land loss, in particular in areas such as South East Asia. Erosion, submergence of shorelines, salinity of the water table due to the increased sea levels, could mainly affect agriculture through inundation of low-lying lands.

    [edit] Erosion and fertility
    With global warming, soil degradation is more likely to occur, and soil fertility would probably be affected by global warming. However, due to the fact that the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is a constant, a doubling of carbon is likely to imply a higher storage of nitrogen in soils as nitrates, thus providing higher fertilizing elements for plants, providing better yields. The average needs for nitrogen could decrease, and give the opportunity of changing often costly fertilisation strategies.

    Due to the extremes of climate that would result, the increase in precipitations would probably result in greater risks of erosion, whilst at the same time providing soil with better hydration, according to the intensity of the rain. The possible evolution of the organic matter in the soil is a highly contested issue: while the increase in the temperature would induce a greater rate in the production of minerals, lessening the soil organic matter content, the atmospheric CO2 concentration would tend to increase it.

    [edit] Potential effects of global climate change on pests, diseases and weeds
    A very important point to consider is that weeds would undergo the same acceleration of cycle as cultivated crops, and would also benefit from carbonaceous fertilization. Since most weeds are C3 plants, they are likely to compete even more than now against C4 crops such as corn. However, on the other hand, some results make it possible to think that weedkillers could gain in effectiveness with the temperature increase.[citation needed]

    Global warming would cause an increase in rainfall in some areas, which would lead to an increase of atmospheric humidity and the duration of the wet seasons. Combined with higher temperatures, these could favor the development of fungal diseases. Similarly, because of higher temperatures and humidity, there could be an increased pressure from insects and disease vectors.

    [edit] Glacier retreat and disappearance
    The continued retreat of glaciers will have a number of different quantitative impacts. In areas that are heavily dependent on water runoff from glaciers that melt during the warmer summer months, a continuation of the current retreat will eventually deplete the glacial ice and substantially reduce or eliminate runoff. A reduction in runoff will affect the ability to irrigate crops and will reduce summer stream flows necessary to keep dams and reservoirs replenished.

    According to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the principal dry-season water sources of Asia's biggest rivers - Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween and Yellow - could disappear by 2035 as temperatures rise.[12] Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[13] India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by severe droughts in coming decades.[14] In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 500 million people.[15][16]

    [edit] Ozone and UV-B
    Some scientists think agriculture could be affected by any decrease in stratospheric ozone, which could increase biologically dangerous ultraviolet radiation B. Excess ultraviolet radiation B can directly effect plant physiology and cause massive amounts of mutations, and indirectly through changed pollinator behavior, though such changes are difficult to quantify.[17] However, it has not yet been ascertained whether an increase in greenhouse gases would decrease stratospheric ozone levels.

    In addition, a possible effect of rising temperatures is significantly higher levels of ground-level ozone, which would substantially lower yields.[18]

    [edit] Impact of agriculture on climate change
    The agricultural sector is a driving force in the gas emissions and land use effects thought to cause climate change. In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of livestock[19]; according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture.[20]

    [edit] Land use
    Agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas increases through land use in four main ways:

    CO2 releases linked to deforestation
    Methane releases from rice cultivation
    Methane releases from enteric fermentation in cattle
    Nitrous oxide releases from fertilizer application
    Together, these agricultural processes comprise 54% of methane emissions, roughly 80% of nitrous oxide emissions, and virtually all carbon dioxide emissions tied to land use.[21]

    The planet's major changes to land cover since 1750 have resulted from deforestation in temperate regions: when forests and woodlands are cleared to make room for fields and pastures, the albedo of the affected area increases, which can result in either warming or cooling effects, depending on local conditions. [22] Deforestation also affects regional carbon reuptake, which can result in increased concentrations of CO2, the dominant greenhouse gas.[23] Land-clearing methods such as slash and burn compound these effects by burning biomatter, which directly releases greenhouse gases and particulate matter such as soot into the air.

    [edit] Livestock
    Livestock and livestock-related activities such as deforestation and increasingly fuel-intensive farming practices are responsible for over 18% of human-made greenhouse gas emissions, including:

    9% of global carbon dioxide emissions
    35-40% of global methane emissions (chiefly due to enteric fermentation and manure)
    64% of global nitrous oxide emissions (chiefly due to fertilizer use.[24])
    Livestock activities also contribute disproportionately to land-use effects, since crops such as corn and alfalfa are cultivated in order to feed the animals.

    Worldwide, livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the Earth.[25]

    [edit] See also
    Energy Portal

    Land Allocation Decision Support System - a research tool that is used to test how climate change may affect agriculture (eg. yield and quality).

    [edit] References
    Fischer G., Shah M. and van Velthuizen H. (2002) "Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability". International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Report prepared under UN Institutional Contract Agreement 1113 for World Summit on Sustainable Development. Laxenburg, Austria
    ^ Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios retrieved 26 Jun 2007
    ^ UN Report on Climate Change retrieved 25 Jun 2007
    ^ "Climate 'could devastate crops'", BBC News Online, 31 January 2008.
    ^ Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008). "Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030". Science 319 (5863): 607–10. doi:10.1126/science.1152339. PMID 18239122.
    ^ Australian Drought and Climate Change, retrieved on June 7th 2007.
    ^ NOAA (2006-01-30). "NOAA reports 2005 global temperature similar to 1998 record warm year". Press release.
    ^ Climate change, agricultural policy and poverty reduction – how much do we know?. Overseas Development Institute (2007).
    ^ Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability IPCC
    ^ The Food, the Bad, and the Ugly Scherer, Glenn Grist July, 2005
    ^ Plague of plenty New Scientist Archive
    ^ The Food, the Bad, and the Ugly Scherer, Glenn Grist July, 2005
    ^ Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
    ^ Big melt threatens millions, says UN
    ^ Glaciers melting at alarming speed
    ^ Ganges, Indus may not survive: climatologists
    ^ Himalaya glaciers melt unnoticed
    ^ Ozone layer most fragile on record Brown, Paul The Guardian April 2005
    ^ Dead link:
    ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN retrieved 25 Jun 2007
    ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios retrieved 26 Jun 2007
    ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    ^ IPCC Technical Summary retrieved 25 June 2007
    ^ Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 25 jun 2007
    ^ Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 27 jun 2007

    [edit] External links
    LADSS - Climate Change and Agriculture - Are we asking the right questions?
    John Vidal and Tim Radford, The Guardian, June 30, 2005, One in six countries facing food shortage
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    Rajasthan • India
    Jal Mahal
    Coordinates: 26°33′N 75°31′E26.55, 75.52
    Time zone
    IST (UTC+5:30)

    • Elevation
    200.4 km² (77 sq mi)
    • 431 m (1,414 ft)
    Jaipur District

    • Density
    3,324,319 (2005)
    • 16,588/km² (42,963/sq mi)
    Mayor Tejasvi Chandela
    • Pincode
    • Telephone
    • Vehicle

    • 3020 xx
    • +0141
    • INJAI
    • RJ-14
    Coordinates: 26°33′N 75°31′E26.55, 75.52
    Jaipur A Heritage City pronunciation (help•info) (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. Jaipur is also the capital of Jaipur District. Jaipur is the former capital of the princely state of Jaipur. Founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber. By 2003, after only 276 years, the population had reached approximately 2.7 million.
    Built of pink stucco in imitation of sandstone, the city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six quarters separated by broad streets 111 ft (34 m) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex (the Hawa Mahal, or palace of winds), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. Another noteworthy building is Sawai Jai Singh's observatory, Jantar Mantar. With its rich and colourful past, resplendent with tales of valour and bravery, Jaipur is now one of the most important heritage cities in India, and is a must-see for tourists coming to India.
    1 History
    2 Architecture
    3 Geography
    4 Location
    5 Climate
    6 Infrastructure
    6.1 Electricity
    6.2 Water
    6.3 Road transport
    6.4 Rail transport
    6.5 Air transport
    7 Places to see
    8 Industry
    8.1 Main industrial products
    8.2 Export items
    9 Demographics
    9.1 Literacy
    10 See also
    11 References
    12 Further Reading
    13 External links

    City was established in 1727 by maharaja Jai Singh II as a new capital of Kachwaha dynasty (Dhundhar region). Then the capital was shifted from the historical capital Amber.
    In the 19th century the city grew rapidly and became prosperous; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas. The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris. The city has a vibrant and healthy Muslim population.

    Jaipur is considered by many urbanists to be one of the best planned cities. Almost all Northern Indian towns of that period presented a chaotic picture of narrow twisting lanes, a confusion of run-down forts/temples/palaces and temporary shacks that bore no resemblance at all to the principles set out in Hindu architectural manuals, which calls for strict geometric planning. Thus, for Sawai Jai Singh II and the Bengali Guru Vidyadhar (who was a 'Shaspati' - Hindu Priest Architect), the founding of Jaipur was also a ritual and a golden opportunity to plan a whole town according to the principles of Hindu architectural theory. The town of Jaipur is in fact, built in the form of a nine-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'. Nine signifies the nine planets of the ancient astrological zodiac. It is also known that Sawai Jai Singh II was a great astronomer and a town planner and hence the 'Pithapada'. Also, the commercial shops designed are multiples of nine (27) and then having one cross street for a planet.

    Jaipur is located at 26.92° N 75.82° E.[1] It has an average elevation of 432 metres (1417 feet).
    [edit] Location

    Nahargarh Fort is a famous landmark in Jaipur
    The district is situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is bound in the north by Sikar and Alwar, in South by Tonk, Ajmer and Sawai Madhopur. Nagaur, Sikar and Ajmer in the west and in east by Bharatpur and Dausa districts.
    Distance from major cities
    Delhi-265 km
    Ahmedabad-625 km
    Chandigarh-510 km
    Mumbai-1,176 km
    Calcutta-1,472 km
    Agra-246 km
    Kota-245 km
    Ajmer-124 km
    Pushkar-138 km

    Jaipur has a semi-arid climate in spite of receiving more than 50 cm rainfall annually, as the rainfall is concentrated in the monsoon months between June and September. This is due to its proximity to the Thar desert. The highest recorded temperature ever was 45°C, while the lowest ever was 1°C[2].
    Climate Table
    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    Mean daily maximum temperature (°C)
    21 24 30 36 39 38 32 31 33 32 27 22
    Mean daily temperature (°C)
    15 18 23 30 33 33 30 28 28 26 21 16
    Mean daily minimum temperature (°C) 9 12 17 23 26 28 26 25 23 20 15 10
    Average precipitation (cm) 1 0 0 0 1 5 19 20 8 1 0 0
    Source: Weatherbase

    Lakshmi-Narayan Temple,
    Modern infrastructural facilities are currently fast developing, and in many cases surpass those of larger cities like Delhi and Calcutta. It is expanding very quickly and has become a hot spot for development in Rajasthan. Jaipur has an airport but is currently not equipped to handle heavy traffic including traffic from international locations (although flights to some international destinations are available).
    [edit] Electricity
    Jaipur district receives hydroelectric power from the Chambal Hydel system. 98% of the total of 2,131 villages in the district receive electricity as of March 2000.

    The major rivers passing through the Jaipur district are Banas and Banganga. Ground water resources to the extent of about 28.65 million cubic meter are available in the district. Although serious drought is rare, poor water management and exploitation of groundwater with extensive tube-well systems threatens agriculture in some areas.
    [edit] Road transport
    Jaipur city is the capital of the state of Rajasthan and is centrally located. The National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Ahmedabad and No.11, linking Bikaner to Agra passes through Jaipur district to a total length of 366 km. The total length of different types of roads in the district was about 4,102 km as of March 2000.

    hawa mahal from front
    Rail transport

    Jaipur is very well connected by rail with all major cities and towns in India. Jaipur is connected on the broad-gauge and meter gauge network of the Indian Railways. Jaipur has direct trains on the broad gauge network to cities like Agra, Delhi, Mumbai, Howrah, Chennai, Mysore, Bangalore, Lucknow, Kanpur etc. across the country and to cities like Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Kota, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur within Rajasthan.
    Jaipur is connected with metre gauge rail route with Sri Ganganagar, Churu and Sirohi.

    Jaipur is also connected with major centres of neighbouring states such as Agra (Uttar Pradesh), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Delhi through the broad gauge network.
    Air transport

    Jaipur's Jaipur Airport (IATA: JAI, ICAO: VIJP) is situated in its satellite town of Sanganer and offers sporadic service to London, Dublin, Singapore and Dubai. Jaipur also has well connected domestic air links with Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Goa, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bangalore, Mumbai, Surat and Raipur, .

    Places to see
    Jantar Mantar attracts thousands of tourists every year.

    Amer Fort.

    Jal Mahal at Night

    Nahargarh Fort

    Amber Palace The Amber Palace complex overlooking the artificial lake south of the town of Amber is one of the most popular tourist sites in the city, famous for its mixture of Hindu and Muslim architecture, and offering elephant rides from the town up to the palace courtyard. Although the structure is today known as Amber Fort, the complex was initially a Palace Complex within the Fort of Amber which is today known as Jaigarh fort.

    Jaigarh Fort The Jaigarh Fort on the hills above the Amber Palace complex offers stunning views of the foothills of the Aravalli range, as well as attractions such as immense underground water-storage tanks, a medieval canon foundry and an impressive collection of medieval cannons including the Jaivana which is reputed to be the world's largest cannon on wheels. Historically this was the original Amber Fort, although it became known as Jaigarh from the time of Sawai Jai Singh II onwards.

    Jal Mahal is located in Jaipur India, which is the capital of the State of Rajasthan. It is on the way to Sisodia garden. The rajput style "Water Palace" sits in the center of the Man Sarobar lake. The lake is often dry in the summer but winter monsoons frequently turn it into a beautiful lake filled with water hyacinths.[3]

    Jantar Mantar
    Hawa Mahal
    Govind Dev Ji temple
    City Palace Museum
    moti dungari(Ganesh Temple)
    Kanak Ghati
    Albert Museum in Ramniwas Bagh
    Jawahar Circle
    Central Park
    KLP IMPEX 1, Vishnu Puri, Durgapura, JAIPUR
    Birla Temple

    Gaurav Tower (Near Jawahar Circle..):--
    Famous hangout place is located in Malviya Nagar Near By JLN Marg nd many gud places also near by GT (Gaurav Tower) like Saras Parlor,WTP (World Trade Park)still running project,NTM (Restaurant), Mocha (coffee Shop), Clark's Amer (Hotel) Might be 3***.. nd the favourite Multiplex by jpr People Entertainment Paradise (EP) there are 3 Cinemas halls name is (Galazy, Coral nd Emerlad)

    Panoramic view of Jal Mahal.


    No. of large and medium scale running units: 48 No. of small scale units: 19,544 No. of industrial areas: 19
    Bagru, Bassi, Bais Godam, Bindyaka, Dudu, Hirawala, Jetpura, Jhotwara, Kaladera, Kanakpura, Kartarpura, Malviya Nagar, Phulera, Renwal, Sanganeer, Shahpura, Sitapura, Sudarshanpur and Vishwakarma.
    [edit] Main industrial products

    Traditional garments from Jaipur

    Jaipur district is a centre for both the modern and traditional industries. The main industrial products include: acetylene gas, ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) cable, all-purpose flour (maida), atta flour, ball bearings, bottling of LPG, ceramics, pottery, cold roll strips, corrugated boxes, deoiled cakes, durries, dyeing and printing, edible oil, electronic items, engraving on brass items, ferrous and non-ferrous castings, gems and jewelry, general engineering and manufacturing, granite slabs and tiles, hand-made paper, handicraft items, halogen automobile headlamps, "hawai" chappals (sandals), household electrical appliances, HT steel strips, iodized salt, lamps, laminated springs for railways, marble statues, marble tiles & slabs, moulded plastic components for electronics, nitrochlorobenzene, oxygen gas, perfumes, pigment colours, plastic containers, P.P. multifilament yarn, PVC cables, PVC doors, PVC footwear, canvas shoes, Portland cement, readymade garments (clothing), re-roller products, semolina (suji), steel furniture, steel ingots, stone grits, synthetic leather, suits & shirts made of synthetic materials, tablets and capsules, two way radio and line, washing soap, wheat, woolen carpet, refined vegetable oil and vanaspati ghee heavy Steel fabrication .

    Brass and lacquer work, enamel work, gems and jewelery, granite tiles, handloom, marble statues, printed cloth and textiles, readymade garments, woolen and silk carpets.
    [edit] Demographics
    As of 2001 India census,[4] Jaipur had a population of 2,324,319. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In Jaipur, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
    [edit] Literacy
    Jaipur has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national average of 64.7%. Male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 59%.[citation needed]
    [edit] See also
    List of people from Rajasthan
    Jaipur (Lok Sabha constituency)

    Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Jaipur
    Bradnok, Robert, Footprint India Handbook, p. 325. Bath, England: Footprint Handbooks. (2002) ISBN 1-903471-38-9.
    Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.

    Further Reading

    This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
    R.S. Khangarot, P.S. Nathawat Jaigarh- The Invincible Fort of Amber, RBSA Publishers, Jaipur (1990)
    Andreas Volwahsen, Cosmic Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments of Maharaja Jai Singh II, Prestel Mapin, Munich (2001)
    J Sarkar, A History of Jaipur, Orient Longman Limited, New Delhi (1984)

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